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'For though conquered, they adore it. 
Love the cold, dead hands that bore it, 
Weep for those who fell before it. ' ' 

' ' Tis wreathed around with glory, 
And 'twill live in song and story 

Though its folds are in the dust. 
For its fame on brightest pages. 
Penned by poets and by sages. 
Shall go sounding down the ages. 

Furl its folds though now we must. 



Copyright 1 896 by 
Confederate Memorial Literary Society. 

Edited by 


Chairman Publication Committee. 

Printed and Bound by Engravings by 

Everett Waddey Company. O. E. Christopher. 


Confederate Memorial Literary Society 

to United Confederate Veterans : 

Q OLDIERS of the Confederacy, who loved our 
cause, and who for more than four bitter 
years suffered in its defence — we, who are but 
the keepers of the records of your glorious 
deeds — give greeting. 

You have assembled once more in the cap- 
ital of the Confederacy to lay the corner-stone 
of a monument to Jefferson Davis, our Presi- 
dent, for a lasting witness of how we honor his 
memory and his unswerving loyalty to truth and 
liberty. Hopeful in disasters, courageous in dan- 
ger, submissive to the will of Providence in 
defeat, he has left a shining example for all 
coming generations how best to serve their 
country and their God ! 

Amid the thronging memories of that heroic 
Past, which you and your presence in our capi- 
tal recall we, women of Richmond, once more 
gladly welcome our defenders to our hearts and 

We can never forget nor repay all you en- 
dured for us and our children; but we shall 
teach them to cherish your memory — to unite 
with us in the heartfelt prayer — 

" God bless for evermore \ the 
Confederate Soldier. 


(JTHE original Flag from which the drawings of the frontis- 
/' piece and title page were made belonged to the Staunton 
Artillery, which was in the following Battles: 

First Manassas, Barhamsuille, Mechanic suille, Gaines's 
Mill, White Oak Swamp, Savage Station, Malvern Hill, Sec- 
ond Manassas, Harper's Ferry, Sharpsburg, Mine Run, 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Winchester, Gettysburg, 
Wilderness, Spotsylvania, Cold Harbor, Berryville, Fisher's 
Hill, Petersburg, Sailor's Creek, Appomattox. 

The stars surrounding the Flag on the title page repre- 
sent the States, and are placed in the order in which they 


South Carolina, December 20, 1860. 

Mississippi, January 9, 1861. 

Florida, January 10, 1861. 

Alabama, January 11, 1861. 

Georgia. January 19, 1861. 

Louisiana, January 26, 1861. 

Texas. February 1, 1861. 

Virginia, April 17, 1861. 

Arkansas, May 6, 1861. 

North Carolina, May 20, 1861. 

Tennessee,* June 24. 1861. 

*Ordinance of Separation, Representation and Military League with the Con- 
federate States. 

3 [11] 

Missouri, Admitted August 20. 1861. 
Kentucky, Admitted December 10, 1861. 

The following young ladies of Miss Logan's Studio con- 
tributed drawings : 

Misses Nannie Dunlop, Edith Hazen, Rea Watkins, Bessie 
Catlin, Sadie Tompkins, Moselle Apperson, Seppie De Saus- 
sure, Sallie Gibson, Mary Anderson, Marie Archer, Daisy 
Hancock, Mary Dunn, Lena Leary, Lizzie Patterson, Annie 

*Unable to speak for herself through the regular appointed methods, the sove- 
reignty of Maryland found representation in the strong arms of the fifteen thousand 
or more who gave their service to the South, and in the loyal hearts and heroic 
deeds of her women. 

[ 12 ] 

In Memoriam Sempiternam, 

MONG the many societies which were 
organized immediately after the war, 

llr^^ifisH^^d I anc ^ w ^i cn na d for their object the pres- 
ervation of the graves of our Confed- 
erate dead, was the Hollywood Memo- 
rial Association. On May 3d, 1866, 

BR«fcsBSi-\&St» I a ^ ew ^ r ^ en< ^ s me ^ to consider what they 
L " could do to show their devotion to the 

Lost Cause. At that time the city, being 
under martial law, no open organized 
effort could be made; so, these friends privately going their 
way, met in Hollywood, bringing their flowers to lay on the 
soldiers' graves in tender sympathy with the aching hearts 
far away. As the years grew, and time and oppor- | 
tunity made it possible, the organization was made „ i 
permanent. In 1867, a large bazaar was held on •*-.'■'. 
Main street, between 9th and 10th, / jfi :: . I 

where the surprising sum of twenty " '# \ ' -TVi'. 

thousand dollars was realized. Two 
years later the present Granite | 
Monument arose in the Soldiers' 6 
Section at Hollywood. 

[ 13] 

The nine acres of a bleak and rugged hillside which 
comprised the Soldiers' Section, were gradually transformed. 
Roadways, turf, and granite posts to mark the lines of graves 
Were added, and the Soldiers' Section of Hollywood has 
come to be by far the best kept and most beautiful part of a 
cemetery which numbers among its lot-owners the wealthiest 
citizens of Richmond. This Association, not content with 
simply caring for these graves, has kept the memory of its 
heroes fresh in every heart by its Annual Memorial Services. 
It has, furthermore, established Memorial Sunday, when all 
the Veteran and Memorial organizations of the city unite in 
the solemn religious service, which recalls that for our beloved 
Dead and their holy cause there is and ever shall be a Resur- 
rection and a Life. There is no resting in any really great 
undertaking, and so within the past few years another branch 
of work has been begun, which, while strictly in the line of 
the past, bids fair to outstrip all former achievements in its 
far-reaching and permanent results 

It was in February, 1890, that Mrs. Joseph Bryan, Pre- 
sident of Hollywood Memorial Association, conceived the idea 
of securing the house which had been occupied by President 
Davis., and converting it into a Confederate Memorial Hall. 

This house, which was erected in the early days of 
Richmond, in what was then the most fashionable part of 
the city, was one of the handsomest houses of that time. It 
was built by Dr. John Brockenbrough (18 17-' 18). When 
Dr. B. retired to the Warm Springs, of which he was pro- 
prietor, he sold it to Mr. James M. Morson. He added the 

[ 14J 

third story, stuccoed the house, and among the other im- 
provements, added the beautiful Carrara marble mantel- 
pieces. When he concluded to retire to his handsome 
country-seat, he disposed of this residence to his first cousin 
and law partner, Hon. James A. Seddon. It will be remem- 
bered that Mr. Seddon had been a member of Congress 
from Virginia, and one of the representatives of Virginia in 
the Peace Congress held January 19, 1861, in Washington, 
and later became Secretary of War of the Confederate 
States of America. A few years before the war Mr. Seddon 
removed to Sabot Hill, and this residence again changed 
hands, Mr. Lewis D. Crenshaw, of the Haxall-Crenshaw Mills, 
becoming the owner. He sold it to the city of Richmond 
for $35,000. The city furnished it to the extent of $8,000, 
and tendered it to President Davis when the Confederate 
capital was removed hither. He declined to receive it, and 
only consented to occupy it on the condition that full rent 
should be paid, which was done by the Confederate govern- 
ment, June 10th, 1861. 

At the evacuation of Richmond on April 3d, 1865, the 
United States military, under General Godfrey Weitzel, took 
possession of the President's house for their headquarters, 
and held it until September 5th, 1870, when it was restored 
to the city. During these five years, Virginia was held 
under martial law, and only known as "District No. 1." 
But for the earnest efforts of the citizens of Richmond, and 
some friends in Washington, General Canby would have 
turned over the White House of the Confederacy to the 

[ 15] 

Freedman's Bureau for a negro normal school. In 1871 
it was converted into a public school building known as the 
Central School. 

For this memorial purpose, from the Hollywood Memo- 
rial Association a new society was organized on May 26th, 
1890. and on May 31st, 1890, was chartered under the 
name of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society. 

On December 8th, 1890, Colonel John B. Cary, a 
member of the Board of Aldermen, offered a resolution for 
an appropriation for a new school building, and the delivery 
of the Confederacy White House to the Confederate Memo- 
rial Literary Society for the use of a museum and a library as 
soon as the school was ready. On January 5th, 1891, this 
ordinance was passed by the Common Council. 

On June 3d, 1894 (President Davis's 86th birthday, 
which day has for that reason been chosen for the regular 
annual meeting of the Society), the building was formally 
turned over to the ladies by Colonel John B. Cary, Chairman 
of the School Committee, in the presence of the School 
Board, Mayor, the ladies of the Confederate Memorial Lit- 
erary Society and its advisory board of gentlemen, and 
accepted by Mr. Joseph Bryan, of the Advisory Board on 
behalf of the Society. 

The building has been restored to the appearance and 
condition in which it was when used by President Davis, ex- 
cept that it is now fire-proof and steam-heated. 

This has been done at an expense of nearly fifteen 
thousand dollars ($15,000), one-half of the sum raised by 

[ 16] 


r i7] 

the Memorial Bazaar, held in Richmond, April, 1893 
($15,000 being given to complete the Monument to the 
Private Soldier and Sailor of the Confederate States), in 
which every Confederate State was represented, giving 
money and relics in response to the appeal published in every 
Southern paper, asking endorsement and co-operation "in 
establishing at Richmond, in the White House of the Con- 
federacy, a museum which should be national, permanent, 
and worthy to represent the soldier and the cause of the 
Confederacy." That this effort received the support of 
these States in a large measure is shown by the result, the 
magnificent sum of $30,000, net, being realized. 

That the capital represented alike every State of the 
Confederacy, which no other place could do, seemed to 
point to Richmond as the most fitting place for this memo- 
rial. Added to this was the sacred association which must 
ever remain in the hearts of the soldiers from every State 
who wore the gray on the fields around this city, and the 
undying love and sorrow of women in every State whose 
loved ones lie sleeping around this same city, still tf)e camp- 
ing ground of the dead as they had been of the living. 

It was in the loving thought of the women of Rich- 
mond that to establish this Battle Abbey in this capital was 
but carrying out the wish of every veteran of our sacred 

The rooms have been apportioned to the different 
Southern States, and have their names and coat-of-arms to 
mark them. Each room has its regent residing in her State, 

[ 18] 

collecting there the records, relics and memorials necessan, 
to properly equip the room. There is also a vfce-regent re- 
siding in Richmond, who takes personal charge of the room 
and its interests entrusted to her care by the regent. There 
will be also an advisory board, consisting of the Grand Com- 
mander of the United Confederate Veterans and com- 
manders of the Camps of Veterans throughout the Southern 
States. The entrance hall and reception room are devoted 
to the Solid South, of which Mrs. Jefferson Davis is re- 
gent. The formal opening of the building took place on the 
22d of February, 1896, in commemoration of the day on 
which President Davis was inaugurated in Richmond. 
There has been during these years a steady collection of 
relics, and there is in the possession of the Society, not only 
relics, but documents, archives, and manuscripts of untold 
value. " The Mary DeRenne " collection, presented to the 
Georgia Room by Dr. Everard DeRenne, of Savannah, Ga., 
ranks alone as one of the most valuable collections of 
Southern memorials in existence. It was begun by Mrs. 
Mary DeRenne, early in the war, for an historical society. 
She was a lady of large culture, a lover of history and of 
truth; beloved and influential, with large means at her com- 
mand. What could not be secured by money was reached 
by her strong persuasive power. The collection in the Vir- 
ginia Room has been the work of the years since the first 
conception of this plan in February, 1890. The first act of 
Hollywood Memorial Association was to appoint a Relic 
►Committee, of which Mrs. J. Taylor Ellyson was chairman. 

A [ 19] 

This committee has been actively at work in all this time, 
and can proudly show the result. Memorials of Lee and 
Jackson have been given to this room, and the entire collection 
of R. E. Lee Camp, No. 1 , has been placed here, and already 
there arises the need of looking to the future for space in 
which to place the articles, papers, &c, still coming in and 
promised at a later time. The Soldiers' Home, at Higgins- 
ville, Missouri, has pledged its collection to the Missouri 
Room when that Home shall cease to be used. 

The Southern Historical Society, in which are the 
fullest and most reliable records and data of the war (except 
in the War Records Office in Washington, D. C), is also 
established in this building. This property, apart from the 
relics and library, etc., which cannot be valued, represents 
not less than $60,000. There is sufficient ground attached 
to allow the erection of another building, should another 
one be required, as seems probable, judging from the present 
condition of affairs. In the museum are mantel-pieces and 
chandeliers which were in use during the occupancy of Presi- 
dent Davis and family. From the eastern porch, during the 
first year of their residence there, little Joe Davis, the 
oldest son, fell and was instantly killed. Winnie Davis, 
" The Daughter of the Confederacy," was born in this house, 
and there, in Mrs. Davis's litttle private sitting room, now the 
Mississippi Room, were held the most important conferences 
between the President and Generals Lee and Jackson, at 
which times, when worn and wearied, coming in from the fields 
around Richmond, Mrs Davis would serve them real coffee, a 
small store of which she kept on hand for special occasions. 


Receptions were held here once a week by the Presi- 
dent, and the stone steps at the front have been pressed by 
the feet of not only generals and trusted commanders, but 
of soldiers from every State of the Confederacy. From the 
eastern windows can be seen the 
monument to the " Private Soldier 
and Sailor," where stands the lonely 
sentinel forever on guard over the 
citadel of his country. 

The membership of the Society, 
whose work this Museum represents, 
consists of three classes, Honorary, . j 
Annual $1.00, and Life $10.00, 
which entitles the holder to free ad- 
mission, at all times, upon the pre- 
sentation of the membership card. 

The Museum is open to the 

public, twenty-five cents admission 

fee, except on Saturdays when it is 


The hours are from 10 A. M. 

to 6 P. M. Mrs. M. L. Van Doren, 

a daughter of Commodore Matthew 

F. Maury, is Chairman of the Membership Committee, and 

her sister, Mrs. James R. Werth, is Chairman of the Relic 

Committee. The Vice-Regents are in most cases ladies 

born in the State they represent, or are closely connected 

with prominent families there. 

[21 ] 


Mrs. E. D. Hotchkiss is the only Honorary Vice-Presi- 
dent, made so in recognition of her services as President 
of the Memorial Bazaar, and as Chairman of the Building 
Committee through whom the repairing was done. She is 
now Chairman of the Grounds Committee. Mrs. James H. 
Grant, the next-door neighbor and intimate friend of Mrs. 
Davis during the occupancy of this house, is most fittingly 
the Chairman of the House Committee, being also a mem- 
ber of the Building Committee. 

The outbuildings and stables, and a brick wall ten feet 
high, which stood around the lot, have been torn down and 
the grounds have been converted into a park, under the 
direction of the City Engineer, Col. William E. Cutshaw, 
who has been one of the most active members of the Ad- 
visory Board. 

Mr. H. C. Baskerville was the architect for the fire- 
proofing and repairing, whose careful attention and free use 
of his own time saved the Society hundreds of dollars, mak- 
ing the cost $500 less than the estimated amount required. 
The city has given unstinted aid in the prosecution of this 
work, which with the generous gifts of time, labor and 
material by friends of the ladies and of the Cause, represents 
at least $2,500. The whole building is an enduring monu- 
ment to our President and our Cause. 

Here our children shall come and learn the lesson of 
Constitutional Liberty, as known and taught by our great 
Washington and our immortal Lee. 

[ 22 ] 

[ 23] 


THE undersigned, desiring to form a body politic and cor- 
porate for the purposes and with the rights and privileges 
hereinafter set forth, do make, sign and acknowledge, ac- 
cording to law, the following certificate in writing, viz.: 

First. The name of the company or society is to be 
"The Confederate Memorial Literary Society." 

Secondly. The purposes for which it is formed are to 
establish in the city of Richmond, in the State of Virginia, 
the capital of the late Confederate States of America, a 
a Confederate Memorial Literary Society or Association, to 
collect and receive, by gift, purchase or otherwise, all books 
and other literary productions pertaining to the late war 
between the States, and of those engaged therein; all works 
of art or science, all battle-flags, relics, and other emblems 
of that struggle ; and to preserve and keep the same for the 
use of said Society and the public, under such rules and 
regulations as the said Society may prescribe. 


For these and other kindred purposes, the said Society 
may receive from the city of Richmond, and fiold, occupy 
and enjoy the buildings and grounds at the corner of Clay 
and 12th streets in said city, which were used and occupied 
by the Honorable Jefferson Davis, late President of the 
Confederate States of America, during the late war ; and 
it may also receive, hold and use, any other property, real 
or personal, which it may acquire by gift, purchase or other ■ 
wise for the purposes of said company or society, and any 
contributions of books, furniture, relics, money or any other 
property, from any person, firm or corporation whatsoever. 
To aid this Society in establishing itself as a literary 
society, and in carrying out its work in that direction, it is 
hereby authorized, when the city of Richmond shall have 
dedicated the said buildings and grounds, above referred to. 
for its use, and under such rules and regulations as said 
company or society shall prescribe, to tender to the Southern 
Historical Society, and the Virginia Historical Society, or 
either of them, the use of such room or rooms in said 
building as this company or society shall designate ; and said 
historical societies, or either of them, as may be willing to 
receive and use for keeping and preserving the archives 
and property of said historical societies, or either of them. 

Third. The capital stock of said company or society 
shall be one thousand dollars. But this sum may be in- 
creased at any time by the company or society to the maxi- 
mum sum allowed by law ; it shall be divided into shares of 
the par value of ten dollars each. 

[ 25 | 

Fourth. The amount of real estate proposed to be held 
by said company or society, shall not exceed two acres of 
ground, nor be of a value exceeding two hundred thousand 

Fifth. The place in which the principal office of said 
company or society shall be kept is the city of Richmond, 
in the State of Virginia, and the chief business to be trans- 
acted is the establishment in said city of a Confederate 
Memorial Literary Society, for the collection, preservation 
and exhibition of the literature, works of art and science, 
relics, emblems, and other memorials of the late war 
between the States, and of those engaged therein, in the 
manner and by the means hereinbefore set forth. 

Sixth. The names and residences of the officers who 
are to manage the affairs of the company or society for the 
first year are as follows, viz.: President, Mrs. Joseph Bryan, 
of Henrico county, Virginia. Vice-Presidents, Mrs. Lewis 
N. Webb, Mrs. John Purcell, Mrs. James Thomas, Mrs. W. 
W. Henry, Mrs. James R. Branch, Sr., Mrs. James B. Pace, 
and Mrs. P. W. McKinney, all of the city of Richmond, 
Virginia. Treasurer, Mrs. Maxwell T. Clarke, Richmond, 
Virginia. Recording Secretary, Miss Mary G. Crenshaw, 
Richmond, Virginia. Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Ed- 
mund C. Minor, Henrico county, Virginia. Directors, Mrs. 
Joseph Bryan, and Mrs. Edmund C. Minor, Henrico county, 
Virginia; Mrs. Lewis N. Webb, Mrs. John Purcell, Mrs. 
James Thomas, Mrs. W. W. Henry, Mrs. James R. 
Branch, Sr., Mrs. James B. Pace, Mrs. P. W. McKinney, 


Mrs. Maxwell T. Clarke, Miss Mary G. Crenshaw, Mrs. Ann 
E. Grant Mrs. Charles G. Barney, Mrs. Lizzie Cary Daniel, 
and Mrs. Raleigh Colston, of Richmond, Virginia. 

Given under our hands, this 31st day of May, A. D. 1890. 

Mrs. Joseph Bryan, 
" Lucy R. Webb. 

Lucy Grant Henry, 
James R. Branch, Sr., 
James B. Pace, 
Philip McKinney, 
Maxwell T. Clarke, 
Miss Mary G. Crenshaw, 
Mrs, Edmund C. Minor, 
Ann E. Grant, 
Chas. G. Barney, 
Lizzie Cary Daniel, 
Raleigh Colston. 

State of Virginia— City of Richmond, to-wit : 

I, H. P. Gray, a Notary Public in and for the city and State 
aforesaid, do hereby certify that Mrs. Joseph Bryan, Mrs. Edmund 
C. Minor. Mrs. Lewis N. Webb. Mrs. W. W. Henry, Mrs. James 
R. Branch, Sr., Mrs. James B. Pace, Mrs. P. W. McKinney, Mrs. 
Maxwell T. Clarke, Miss Mary G. Crenshaw, Mrs. Ann E. Grant, 
Mrs. Charles G. Barney, Mrs. Lizzie Cary Daniel, and Mrs. Raleigh 
Colston, whose names are signed to the foregoing certificate in writ- 
ing, bearing date the 31st day of May, 1890, personally appeared 
before me, in my city aforesaid, and made, signed and acknow- 
ledged the same. 

Given under my hand, this 31st day of May. 1890. 

H. P. GRAY, N. P. 
5 [ 27 ] 


In the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond, May 3 1st, 1890: 
It appearing to the Court that Mrs. Joseph Bryan, Mrs. Edmund 
C. Minor, Mrs. Lewis N. Webb, Mrs. W. W. Henry, Mrs. James R. 
Branch, Sr., Mrs. James B. Pace, Mrs. P. W. McKinney, Mrs. 
Maxwell T. Clarke, Miss Mary G. Crenshaw, Mrs. Anna E. Grant, 
Mrs. Charles G. Barney, Mrs. Lizzie Cary Daniel, and Mrs. Raleigh 
Colston have made, signed and acknowledged, according to law, a 
certificate in writing having for its object the formation of a joint 
stock company for the purposes set forth in the said certificate, the 
court doth grant unto them, and such others as may be hereafter 
associated with them, a charter upon the terms set forth in said 
certificate ; and it is ordered that they and their associates be, and 
they are hereby, made and created a body corporate and politic 
by the name of "The Confederate Memorial Literary Society," 
with all the powers and privileges conferred, and subject to all the 
provisions and restrictions imposed by the laws of Virginia as may 
be applicable to corporations of this character. But said charter is 
granted upon the express condition that the said corporation shall 
pay in lawful money of the United States, all taxes and other 
demands against it which may become due to the Commonwealth of 
Virginia. And it is ordered that the same be recorded. 

A copy— Teste: ALFRED SHEILD, Clerk. 


In the Clerk's Office of the Circuit Court of the City of Richmond, 
May 3 1st, 1890: 

The foregoing charter of incorporation of "The Confederate 
Memorial Literary Society," was this day received in the said 
clerk's office of said court, recorded and is hereby certified to the 
Secretary of the Commonwealth of Virginia for recordation. 

Teste: ALFRED SHEILD, Clerk. 

A copy— Teste: E. M. ROWELLE. Clerk. 


Gauntlets of Robert E. Lee. (Courtesy of Mr. Preston Cocke.) 

RICHMOND — the theatre whereupon President Davis 
- acted his noblest part; Richmond, the head and heart 
of the Confederacy, the defense of which called forth the 
most brilliant exploits of Lee and Jackson — is the place of 
all others in the South where should be collected the records, 
memorials, and relics of the war. 

Here only can be found all that belongs to the history 
of the Army of Northern Virginia. Here, in the White 
House of the Confederacy, the women of Virginia have 
established a grand Memorial Hall, and they appeal to every 
man and woman in the South to join them in their efforts 
to rescue the fragments of individual heroism and endurance, 
fast floating away to oblivion, to gather in the tattered, rusty 
mementoes of our Lost Cause, and commit them to the keep- 
ing of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society now 
fully equipped to guard such treasures. Let the faded cap 
of the Lieutenant,* killed while leading a charge, be laid 

* Lieut. W. J. Sims, Company A, 23d Virginia Infantry. Killed Sharpsburg, 
September 17, 1862. 

L 29 ] 

by the uniform of the peerless Lee ; let the 
rough, wooden tray* in which the coarse 
meal or flour was kneaded into bread, keep com- 
pany with the knapsack of the dashing Stuart, f 
thus proclaiming to the world that the private 
and the general stand side by side on the Con- 
s federate roll of honor in every Southern heart. 

The relics already in place are striking ob- 
ject lessons of that memorable time. The Jtable 
on which the Ordinance of the Secession of Vir- 
- ginia was signed, brings to mind those days when "civil 
capTsed°by Mr liberty was m danger of being throttled by the mailed hand 
H NorMkmu*s 0f °f military power." The musket and canteen of the private 
tell of the "picket off duty forever." The shells of the 
"music in the air," so inspiring to the gallant artilleryman; 
the saddles of Stonewall Jackson and Robert E. Lee§ bring 

*Left at the house of Mrs. Cornelia Storrs Taylor. " The bugle sounded and 
the soldiers had to move on ; so the tray, with contents, was left with my cook, 

t Letter Written by Mr. Andrew Carpenter, one of Gen. J. E. B. 
Stuart's Troopers (Madison Mills, Va., July 1 8th, 1 892) : 

Mrs. J. Taylor EUyson — Dear Madam. — In reply to your favor of June 21st, I 
have Gen. Stuart's haversack, which was given me by Mrs. Stuart the day after 
the General's death in Richmond. I was assigned to Gen. Stuart in March, 1862, 
at Centerville, because I had the finest horse in Company A, Fourth Virginia Cav- 
alry, and I stayed with him until he was shot at Yellow Tavern. I held his head 
in my lap from there to Richmond in an ambulance, and I stayed with him until he 
died next night, about 8 P. M., and laid him out. The last thing he said was : "I 
would like to live to see the war ended, and to see my wife once more." Mrs. 
Stuart arrived about an hour after his death. She felt grateful to me, I suppose, for 
my attention to the General, and gave me his haversack, which, I assure you, I 
have kept as a sacred memento of him, whom I admired above all others in our 
army. J part with it most reluctantly, but I feel it my duty to do so, knowing it 
will be preserved long after my death. I send it by express to your address. 
Please do me the favor to have his name inscribed on it, and by whom presented 
to the society, with a short history of it. Wishing you success in your noble enter- 
prise, I am, Yours truly, ANDREW CARPENTER. 

X Presented by Southern Historical Society. 

§ Courtesy of Soldiers' Home, at Richmond, Va. 



r ; 

% -^ 



77? e S00/5 j^er,? wor« fey General R. E. Lee, and were sent to Mercie for use in 
modeling the Lee statue. The Pistol was carried by General R. E. Lee during the 
whole war. — G. W. C. Lee. 

[31 1 



to mind the last meeting of these 
two peerless generals before the 
battle of Chancellorsville. The tat- 
tered battle flags droop above the 
swords of A. P. Hill and Pegram, 
two of Virginia's brightest jewels. 
As we gather in the worn gar- 
ments and old slouch hats, the rusty 
pistols, powder-flasks and haversacks* of the Army of the 
Confederacy, we cannot forget the brilliant feats of the 
Navy of the Confederacy. The bullet holes in the jacket 
of Flag- Lieutenant Robert Minor, of the " Merrimac," shot 
under the white flag in an open boat while on his way to the 
surrende red "Con- 
gress," attest the dar- 
ing gallantry of this 
officer. The sword 
and blood-stained pis- 
tols worn by this same 
officer speak e lo - 
quently of that mem- 
orable day — March 8, 
1862. The section of the prow of the " Merrimac" tells its 
woeful tale of how the " Cumberland" went down in nine 
fathoms of water with at least one hundred of her brave 
crew, her pennon still flying from her mast-head. 

*This haversack was used by me during the whole war in the Second Com- 
pany, Richmond Howitzers, Cutshaw's Battalion Artillery, Second Corps, A. N. 
V. The aforesaid haversack was made out of a captured U. S. mail bag. 

carlton McCarthy. 

[ 32 1 

Worn by Mr. Henry Cor- 
nick, of the " Norfolk 



The chair* which Admiral, then Captain Buchanan had 
with him en the " Merrimac," recalls that memorable battle 
with the "Cumberland" and "Congress." 

The daring, plucky 
little cruiser, the 
" Shenandcah," man- 
ned by seventeen offi- 
cers, who met simul- 
taneously on a certain 
dock in Liverpool, with 
orders to " prey upon 
and destroy the com- 
merce of the United 
States," thrills us when 
we read of her dash- 
ing feats of seaman- 
ship. This cruiser, with 
James I. Waddell, a 
brave son of North 
Carolina as Captain, 
swept the ocean from 
Australia nearly to Behring's Straits, capturing and burning 
ships, once capturing ten, eight of which were burned after 
removing the seamen. In August, 1865, she learned for 
the first time from a British ship that the Confederacy, as an 
independent government, had ceased to exist. To this 
cruiser belongs the honor of having hoisted for the last 

*Courtesy of Mrs. Jessie Gordon English. 

[ 34] 

time, officially, the flag of the Confederacy. Quoting from 
a letter of Dabney M. Scales, her Lieutenant, " It was" 
hauled down for the last time, and that, by my own hands. 
Sailing up the Mersey, November 6, 1865, Captain Waddell 
surrendered the Shenandoah to the British Government. 


Copied from an old water color by Miss Rea Watkins, Richmond, Va., upon 
which is written the following : 

" The late C. S. Steamer of war, ' Shenandoah,' after destruction of nine Yankee 
whalers off East Cape, Eastern Siberia, June 28, 1865. 

"(Signed) JAS. I. WADDELL, Commander:' 

[ 35 


THE White House of the Confederacy was formally 
opened to the public on Saturday, February 22d, 1896. 
It was visited by thousands eager to inspect the building once 
occupied by President Jefferson Davis, now to be dedicated 
as the Treasure House of Confederate history and relics. 
Though made fire-proof, and equipped as an absolutely safe 
repository for such treasures, the building has lost none of 
its former beauty, but is now, as then, a type of an old-time 
Virginia home. A renewed feeling of patriotism, and " a ten- 
der grace of a day that is dead " pervaded the throng. Re- 
marks were heard of the brilliant receptions held here during 
the war. As mothers with handsome daughters at their side 
recalled those scenes, a sparkle of the eye and flitting ex- 
pression of youthful beauty, would bring to mind the stories 
of how charming, piquante, and fascinating were the maidens 
of thirty-five years ago. 

At 2:45 the formal exercises commenced. 

The Governor and his staff entered and took positions 
about the platform, on which stood a small table covered 


with a battle-flag, whose age and signs of service were its 
veriest grace. 

The windows were curtained with flags, and the white 
of the walls was only trespassed upon by large portraits of 
Stonewall Jackson, Johnston, and Jefferson Davis. When 
the strong face and venerable figure of Rev. Dr. Hoge, was 
seen to enter the main door there was a general hush. It 
will be remembered, that of all the ministers in and around 
Richmond, during those stirring times, 1860-1865, he alone 
remains. It was therefore most fitting that he should open 
the exercises with prayer. 

Dr. Hoge's Prayer. 

Almighty God! Thou livest and reignest forevermore, and with 
Thee do live the souls of all who having consecrated their lives to 
Thy service, died committing their spirits to Thy hands and their 
memories to our hearts. By Thy help we will be faithful to the 
sacred trust. We will perpetuate the story of their virtue, valor, and 
piety as a precious legacy to all succeeding generations. 

We gather here to-day with hearts subdued by the tender recol- 
lections of the past, and with devout gratitude for the mercies of the 
present hour. 

We recognize Thy kindness in permitting the noble women of our 
Southland to renovate and beautify this building, which we dedicate 
with these impressive ceremonies to all the sorrow-shrouded glories 
of our departed Confederacy. 

We come on this day hallowed as the birthday of the Father of 
his Country, and by the inauguration of the Chieftain, who, being 
dead, yet, lives in the hearts of those who followed the banner now 
forever furled. We dedicate this mansion as the shrine to which 
all right-minded and right-hearted men will gather from every State 
and from every land to pay homage to exalted worth. The shrine, 

[ 37] 

which will be hallowed by men bound to us by no tie, save that 
which admiration for such worth establishes between all magnani- 
mous souls ; the tie which will never be sundered while the great 
heart of humanity throbs in sympathy with heroic endeavor, and, 
most of all, when heroic endeavor is overwhelmed with defeat. 

Here we would preserve the relics and the records of a struggle 
nevermore to be repeated and nevermore to be forgotten. 

Our Father, we cannot forget the fiery trials, the disasters and 
desolations, which, in years gone by, caused us such humiliation 
and bitter tears, but we gratefully remember also the fortitude, the 
courage, the unfaltering trust in Thee which characterized our peo- 
ple in their time of peril and bereavement. 

And now, turning from the strifes and sorrows of the past we reso- 
lutely face the future, beseeching Thee to grant us the wisdom and 
the grace to make that future prosperous and happy — an era of pro- 
gress in all that enriches and ennobles a people whose God is the 

And now, our Father, amidst the festivities of this hour, we im- 
plore Thee deeply to impress upon our hearts the great truth that all 
the temporal honors and glories of earth are worthless in compari- 
son with the honors Thou dost bestow on those who are loyal to 
Thee, and who seek the eternal glory to which Thou hast taught us 
to aspire. We devoutly thank Thee that the piety of the great lead- 
ers of our armies was the flower and crown of all their virtues, and 
nothing now fills us with a satisfaction so pure, and with a gratitude 
so profound as the remembrance of their consecration to Thee, and 
their supreme devotion to Thy service. 

May these great lessons be impressed anew on our minds and 
hearts by Thine honored servant who comes to address us to-day. 
and may it please Thee to hasten the coming of the time when all 
the inhabitants of this great land may be brought more and more to 
cherish the relation which unites them as children of one Father, and 
as citizens of one country, and when freedom, founded on constitu- 

l 38 ] 

tional law and religion, pure and undefiled, shall make our whole 
land happy and fill the whole world with peace. v 

And to God, Most High, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, we will 
ascribe all honor and glory forever. Amen. 

At its conclusion, Judge Christian read a telegram re- 
ceived from Miss May Singleton Hampton of congratula- 
tion on the auspicious day. " Greeting to Confederate 
Memorial Literary Society; regret I am not with you." 

Governor O'Ferrall was the next speaker, and paid a 
most glowing and eloquent tribute to Southern womanhood. 
He spoke substantially as follows : 

Ladies of the Confederate Literary Memorial Society: 

Ladies and Gentlemen, — I think I can say boldly that the bloody 
strife of 1861 to 1865 developed in the men of the South traits of 
character as ennobling and as exalting as ever adorned men since 
the day dawn of creation. I think I can claim confidently that 
for courage and daring, chivalry and bravery, the world has never 
seen the superior of the Southern soldiers. I think I can assert de- 
fiantly that the annals of time present no leaves more brilliant than 
those upon which are recorded the deeds and achievements of the 
followers of the Southern cross. I think I can proclaim triumph- 
antly that from the South's beloved President and the peerless com- 
mander of her armies in the field down to the private in her ranks, 
there was a display of patriotism perhaps unequalled, certainly never 
surpassed, since this passion was implanted in the human breast. 

But as grand as the South was in her sons, she was grander still 
in her daughters ; as sublime as she was in her men, she was sub- 
limer still in her women. 

History is replete with bright and beautiful examples of woman's 
devotion to home and birthland. of her fortitude, trials, and suffer- 
ings in her country's cause, and the women of the Confederacy 

f 39] 

added many luminous pages to what had already been most graphi- 
cally written. 

Yes, those Spartan wives and mothers, with husbands or sons, or 
both, at the front, directed the farming operations, supporting their 
families at home and supplying the armies ; they sewed, knitted, 
wove and spun ; then in the hospitals they were ministering an- 
gels, turning the heated pillow, smoothing the wrinkled cot, cooling 
the parched lips, stroking the burning brow, staunching the flowing 
blood, binding up the gaping wounds, trimming the midnight taper, 
and sitting in the stillness, only broken by the groans of the sick 
and wounded, pointing the departing spirit the way to God, closing 
the sightless eyes, and then following the bier to a Hollywood or 
ome humbler spot. 

They saw the flames licking the clouds as their homes with their 
clinging memories were reduced to ashes ; they heard of the carn- 
age of battle, followed by the mother's deep moan, the wife's low 
sob, for. alas! she could not weep ; the orphan's wail, and the sis- 
ter's lament. But amid flame, carnage, death and lamentations, 
though their land was reddening with blood, and their loved ones 
were falling like leaves in autumn, they stood like heroines — firm, 
steadfast and constant. 

Oh, women of the Confederacy, your fame is deathless; you 
need not monument nor sculptured stone to perpetuate it. Young 
maidens, gather at the feet of some Confederate matron in some 
reminiscent hour, and listen to her story of those days — now more 
than thirty years past — and how God gave her courage, fortitude, 
and strength to bear her privations, sufferings, and bereavements 
and live. 

I have felt that this tribute to the daughters of the Confederacy, 
poor and brief as it is, would not be inappropriate on this occasion. 

And now, why is it we are here ? What has brought us to- 
gether? What means this concourse of people ? The answer is 
ready upon every tongue, Southern women's love for the mem- 
ories of a generation ago; Southern women's devotion to the cause 

I 40] 

which, though enveloped in the clouds of defeat, yet is circled 
by a blaze of glory, has called us from our firesides and business to 
this spot, The daughters and granddaughters of the women who 
did so much to make this sunny clime of ours so classic and rich in 
historic lore in time of war and battle sound, are here to attest their 
fealty to the traditions of that period by dedicating this structure as 
a depository of Confederate cards and relics, setting apart a room 
for each of the States whose sons followed the star of Lee, Jackson, 
Johnston, Beauregard or Smith, and assigning it to the care of 
a regent, herself the worthy descendant of some patriot who wore 
the gray or gave aid and comfort to those engaged in the terrific 
struggle, Burning with a desire to establish such an institution in 
this old city, the capital of the Confederacy, whose very streets 
seem to be conescrated ground, still resounding in the imaginative 
ear with the tramp, tramp, tramp of the army that wrought renown 
imperishable from Gettysburg Heights to these city gates ; from 
Bethel to Appomattox, those devoted women determined to raise 
the necessary funds for the purpose, When this resolution was 
formed success was assured. In March, 1890, the Society was 
organized. Soon thereafter Colonel John B. Cary, as a member of 
the City Council of Richmond, offered a. resolution donating this 
property, and the resolution was promptly passed, The Society has 
expended about $15,000 in repairs and improvements. Where all 
have acted so nobly and done so well, it would be almost impossi- 
ble to accord special credit to any, yet I feel sure I will voice the 
sentiments of the individual members of the Society when I men- 
tion as worthy of particular notice for their untiring and efficient 
efforts Mrs. Joseph Bryan, President of the Society, and Mrs. E. D. 
Hotchkiss, Chairman of the Building Committee. 

Hastily passing on, let me ask: What building is this we dedi- 
cate ? 

It is what was the White House, the Executive Mansion of the 
Confederacy. Within these walls councils of state and councils of 
war were held, policies discussed, and campaigns mapped. Beneath 

[41 1 

this roof statesmen met statesmen, and warriors met warriors, all 
filled with a loyalty that knew no quenching, and a zeal that knew 
no lessening. Through these corridors rang voices, all in harmony, 
all proclaiming allegiance to a cause about which clustered the 
affections of a people who had staked everything in its maintenance 
and defence. Yes, this was the official home of the Chief Magis- 
trate of the new American republic, founded upon the eternal prin- 
ciples of right and justice, but whose life was crushed out of it under 
the Juggernaut wheels of superior numbers and merciless power — 
numbers recruited from the four corners of the earth, and power 
secured from the combined nationalities of the globe. 

How precious, indeed, are the recollections that hang round 
these precincts ! Every spot is sacred, every room is hallowed. If 
these walls could but speak, what tales of joy and anxiety, happi- 
ness and woe, they would unfold. In their massiveness, they stand 
indeed as a memorial to the great man who once occupied them; 
;and in their stateliness, as a reminder of the lofty character of the 
beloved Chief Magistrate of the short-lived but glorified and immor- 
talized Confederacy. 

But, while the tendrils of all our hearts entwine this historic struc- 
ture, there is no lingering feeling of bitterness engendered by inter- 
necine strife in our breasts. Neither are we engaged in this work 
in any spirit of disloyalty to our reunited land. Oh, no ! We are 
one people, under the asgis of one flag, affirming allegiance to one 
Constitution, worshipping at one altar, and moving forward for one 
goal. While we have no retractions to make, no recantations to 
sing — while we intend ever to be true to ourselves, to our martyred 
dead, and to our heroes, dead and living — to our traditions and 
civilizations, to everything that characterizes a brave and chivalrous 
race — we proclaim ourselves loyal sons and daughters of this Union. 

I must now discharge a duty which has been assigned me. I must 
perform a task which, though pleasant, will be labor lost. I have 
the honor of introducing to you a gentleman who needs no intro- 
duction to a Richmond or Virginia audience — the distinguished sol- 


dier and honored citizen, General Bradley T. Johnson, who will 
address you. » 

General Johnson's Address. 

Ladies of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society, Friends and Fellow 
Confederates, Men and Women: 

To-day commemorates the birthday of the first rebel president, 
and the thirty-fifth anniversary of the inauguration of the last. It 
commemorates an epoch in the grandest struggle for liberty and 
right that has ever been made by man. It celebrates the baptism 
of a new nation, born thirty-five years ago to-day. 

And this commemoration is in the capital city of the Old Dominion 
and of the Confederacy. More than a generation after the utter 
failure of the attempt, it is by the statesmen of Virginia, by her pub- 
lic authorities, by the government of the city of Richmond, who 
honor themselves in honoring this occasion, and by the free senti- 
ment of this great and noble people. 

There is nothing like it in history. No Greek archon, no Roman 
consul, was ever welcomed with a triumph after a defeat. Nowhere, 
at no time, has a defeated side ever been so honored, or the un- 
successful so apotheosized. 

Success is worshipped, failure is forgotten. That is the universal 
experience and the unvarying law of nature. Therefore, it would 
seem that the fall of the Confederacy was, in some sense, a success 
and a triumph, for it cannot be that universal law has been set aside 
for this sole exception, the glorification of the Lost Confederacy, its 
heroines and its heroes. I shall endeavor to make clear in what re- 
spects there was success and triumph. I believe our first and most 
sacred duty is 10 our holy dead, to ourselves, and to our posterity. 
It is our highest obligation to satisfy the world of the righteousness 
of our cause and the sound judgment with which we defended it. 
And we injure ourselves, we impair the morale of our side, by in- 
cessant protestations of loyalty to the victor, and continual assertions 
of respect for his motives, of forgiveness for his conduct, and of be- 

7 [43] 

lief in the nobility of his faith. There never can be two rights, nor 
two wrongs — one side must be right, and, therefore, the other is, of 
course, wrong. This is so of every question of morals and of con- 
duct, and it must be pre-eminently so of a question which divided 
millions of people, and which cost a million of lives. 

The world is surely coming to the conclusion that the cause of the 
Confederacy was right. Every lover of constitutional liberty, liberty 
controlled by law, all over the world begins to understand that the 
war was not a war waged by the South in defence of slavery, but 
was a war to protect liberty won and bequeathed by free ancestors. 

They now know that the fundamental basic principle of the Revo- 
lution of 1775, upon which the governments of the States united 
were all founded — Massachusetts and Virginia, Rhode Island and 
North Carolina — was that "all government of right rests upon the 
consent of the governed," and that they, therefore, at all times must 
have the right to change and alter their form of government when- 
ever changed circumstances require changed laws. 

They now know that the English settlements in America were 
made in separate communities, at different times, by different so- 
cieties ; that they grew and prospered until an attempt was made to 
deprive them of an infinitely small portion of their property without 
their consent. The whole tea tax would not have produced £1 ,500 — 
less than $7,500. That they resisted this attack on their rights as 
distinct colonies ; that as separate States they made treaties with 
France and the continental powers in 1778 ; that their independence 
as separate States, by name, was acknowledged by Great Britain in 
1783; that Maryland fought through that whole war until 1781 as an 
independent and separate State, and never joined the confederation 
until the last named year ; that North Carolina and Rhode Island 
refused to enter the Union created by the Constitution of 1789, after 
the dissolution of the confederation, and for two years remained as 
independent of the States united, and of each other, as France and 
England are to-day ; and, therefore, they know that these indepen- 
dent States, when they entered into the compact of the Constitution 


of 1789, never did (for a State never can, by the very nature of its 
being, commit suicide, ) consent and agree to give up for* ever the right 
of self-government, and of the people of a State to make a govern- 
ment to suit themselves. 

There can be no such thing as irrepealable law in free society! 
Society is immortal. Its atoms arrange and crystallize themselves, 
from generation to generation, according to their necessities, but 
society grows and expands, and constant changes are required in its 

Therefore a State never can abandon its right to change. It is 
,the law of nature, which neither compacts nor treaties, constitutions 
nor congresses, can change. 

When the Constitution of the United States was formed, the insti- 
tution of slavery existed in every one of the States, though emanci- 
pation had been begun in New England. Found to be unprofitable 
as an economic organization, it was rapidly eliminated from the 
Northern society, which was and is based on the idea of profit and 

Profitable in the South, it developed and prospered. It produced 
an enormous expansion of material, and. consequently, political 
power. It developed a society which, for intelligence, culture, 
chivalry, justice, honor, and truth, has never been excelled in this 
world, and it produced a race of negroes the most civilized since 
the building of the Pyramid of Cheops, and the most Christianized 
since the crucifixion of our Lord. The Southern race ruled the con- 
tinent from 1775 to 1860, and it became evident that it would rule it 
for ever as long as the same conditions existed. The free mobo- 
cracy of the North could never cope with the slave democracy of the 
South, and it became the deliberate intent of the North to break up 
institutions so controlling and producing such dominating influences. 
Slavery was the source of political power, and the inspiration of po- 
litical institutions, and it was selected as the point of attack. The 
moral question was subordinate to the political and social one. The 
point of the right or wrong of slavery agitated but a few weak-minded 

[45 ] 

and feeble men. The real, great, dominating and controlling idea 
was the political and social one — the influence of the institution on 
character and institutions. There was forming in the South a mili- 
tary democracy, aggressive, ambitious, intellectual and brave, such 
as led Athens in her brightest epoch and controlled Rome in her 
most glorious days. If that was not destroyed, the industrial society 
of the North would be dominated by it. So the entire social force, 
the press, the pulpit, the public schools, was put in operation to make 
distinctive war on Southern institutions and Southern character, and 
for thirty years attack, vituperation, and abuse were incessant. 

It was clear to the States of the South that there could be no peace 
with |them, and there grew up a general desire to get away from 
them and live separate. The Gulf States urged instant separation 
when this hostile Northern sentiment elected a president and con- 
gress in 1860. But Virginia, who had given six States to the Union ; 
Virginia, whose blood and whose brain had constructed the Union 
of the States ; Virginia absolutely refused to be a party to the break- 
ing of that which was so dear to her. She never seceded from the 
Union, but, standing serene in her dignity, with the halo of her 
glorious history around her, she commanded the peace. The only 
reply vouchsafed was the calling out of 75,000 troops and the tramp 
of hostile footsteps on her sacred soil. Like the flash from heaven 
her sword leaped from its scabbard, and her war cry. "Sic Semper 
Tyrannis" echoed round the world, and her sons circled the earth 
with the blaze of their enthusiasm as they rushed to the call of the 
old mother. Student from Gottingen, trapper from the Rockies, 
soldier and sailor, army and navy, men and women, all gave life — 
all — to stand by "the Mother of us all." And Virginians stood in 
line to guard her homes from invasion, her altars from desecration, 
her institutions from destruction. 

She resisted invasion ! It cannot be too often repeated or too 
plainly stated. 

Virginia never seceded from the Union. She resisted invasion as 
her free ancestors for eight hundred years had done with arms and 


force. Before the ordinance of secession was voted on, Virginia 
was at war with the Northern States, and all legal connection had 
been broken by them, by their own act, in the unlawful invasion of 
her soil. God bless her and hers for ever and for ever ! She bared 
her breast and drew her sword to protect her sisters behind her, and 
took upon herself the hazard of the die. 

And I will presume to record my claim here for her kinsmen who 
flocked to her flag from beyond the Potomac, and who died for her 
on every battle-field from Shepherdstown to Appomattox ; whose 
survivors love her now with the devotion of children adopted in 

It is this constant and growing consciousness of the nobleness, 
and justice and chivalry of the Confederate cause which constitutes 
the success and illuminates the triumph we commemorate to-day. 
Evil dies, good lives, and the time will come when all the world will 
realize that the failure of the Confederacy was a great misfortune to 
humanity, and will be the source of unnumbered woes to liberty. 
Washington might have failed ; Kosciusko and Robert E. Lee did 
fail ; but I believe history will award the higher place to these, un- 
successful, than to Suwarrow and to Grant, victorious. 

This great and noble cause, the principles of which I have at- 
tempted to formulate for you, was defended with a genius and a 
chivalry of men and women never equalled by any race. My heart 
melts now at the memory of those days. 

Just realize it. There is not a hearthstone in Virginia that has not 
heard the sound of hostile cannon ; there is not a family which has 
not buried kin slain in battle. Of all the examples of that heroic 
time, of all figures that will live in the music of the poet, or the pic- 
tures of the painter, the one that stands in the foreground, the one 
that will be glorified with the halo of the martyr-heroine, is the wo- 
man, mother, sister, lover, who gave her life and heart to the cause. 
And the woman who attracts my sympathy most, and to whom my 
heart grows hottest, is the plain, simple country woman and girl, 


remote from cities and towns, back, in the woods, away from rail- 
ways or telegraph. 

Thomas Nelson Page has given us a picture of her in his story of 
" Darby." I thank him for • Darby Stanly." 1 knew the boy and 
loved him well, for I have seen him and his cousins in camp, on the 
march, and on the battle-field, lying in ranks, stark and pale, with 
their faces to the foe. and their muskets grasped in their stiff, cold 
hands. I can recall how the boys would square their shoulders to see 
if the girls were looking at them, and how the girls would preen 
their new muslins and calicoes and see if the boys were " noticing." 
and how by Tuesday news came that Captain Thornton was form- 
ing his company at the court-house and how the mother packed up 
his little " duds " in her boy's school satchel, and tied it on his back, 
and kissed him and bade him " good-bye," and watched him, as 
well as she could see, as he went down the walk to the front-gate, and 
as he turned into the " big road," and as he got to the corner, turned 
round, and took off his hat and swung it around his head, and then 
disappeared out of this life for ever. For after Cold Harbor his body 
could never be found nor his grave identified, though a dozen saw 
him die. He was in front of the charge. 

And then, for days and for weeks and for months, how she lived 
this lonely life, waiting for news! He was her only son, and she 
was a widow; but from that day to this no human being has ever 
heard a word of repining from her lips. Those who suffered most 
complain least. 

Or, 1 recall that story of Bishop-General Polk, of the woman in 
the mountains of Tennessee with six sons. Five in the army, who, 
when it was announced to her that her eldest born had been killed 
in battle, simply said : " The Lord's will be done. Eddie (her baby) 
will be fourteen next spring, and he can take Billy's place." 

The hero of this great epoch is the son I have described, as his 
mother and sister will be the heroines. For years, day and night, 
winter and summer, without pay, with no hope of promotion, nor of 
winning a name or making a mark, the Confederate boy-soldier 

[48 1 

treads the straight and thorny path of duty. Half-clothed, whole- 
starved, he tramps night after night his solitary post £>n picket. No 
one can see him. Five minutes' walk down the road will put him 
beyond recall, and twenty minutes further he will be in Yankee lines, 
where pay, food, clothes, quiet and safety all await him. Think of 
the tens of thousands of boys subjected to this temptation, and how 
few yielded. Think of how many never dreamed of such a relief 
from danger and hardship! 

But, while I glorify the chivalry, the fortitude, and the fidelity of 
the private soldier, I do not intend to minimize the valor, the en- 
durance, or the gallantry of those who led them. 

I know that the knights of Arthur's Round Table, or the Paladins 
and Peers, roused by the blast of that Font-Arabian horn from Ro- 
land at Roncesvalle, did not equal in manly traits, in nobility of 
character, in purity of soul, in gallant, dashing courage, the men 
who led the rank and file of the Confederate armies from lieutenant 
up to lieutenant-general. There were more rebel brigadiers killed 
in battle for the Confederacy than in any war that ever was fought. 
When such men and women have lived such lives and died such 
deaths in such a cause, their memories will outlast time. Martyrs 
must be glorified, and when the world knows, and posterity appre- 
ciates, that the war was fought for the preservation and perpetuation 
of the right of self-government, of government by the people, for the 
people, and to resist government by force against the will of the peo- 
ple, then the Confederacy will be revered like the memories of Le- 
onidas at Thermopylas, and Kosciusko, and Kossuth, and all the 
glorious army of martyrs. 

Repeat and reiterate that the war waged upon the South was an 
unjust and causeless war of invasion and rapine, of plunder and 
murder, not for patriotism nor high motives, but to gratify ambition 
and lust of power in the promoters of it, for contracts and profits by 
the supporters of it. I do not deny enthusiasm for the Union to the 
gallant young Americans who died for their flag, but I do insist that 
the Union would have been smashed to smithereens and the flag 

[49 ] 

gone to pot if there had not been fat contracts for shoddy coats and bo- 
gus boots, to preserve the one and to uphold the other. The senti- 
ment would not have lasted thirty days if the people behind had not 
been making money. The war of the South was a war of self-defence 
justified by all laws sacred and divine, of nature or of man. It was 
the defence of institutions of marriage, of husband and wife, of 
parent and child, of master and servant. Not one man in a thou- 
sand had any property interest in slavery in the Confederate army. 
Every man had a home and a mother. If the stronger section had 
the right to overturn the institution of servitude, maintained by the 
patriarchs, and sanctioned by the apostles, which had in all time- 
been the apprenticeship by which savage races had been educated 
and trained into civilization by their superiors, it would have pre- 
cisely the same right to overturn the institution of marriage, and es- 
tablish its system of divorce laws, by which the ancient institution of 
concubinage could be restored and maintained. If one section could 
impose its will in another, the one was master and the other was 
slave, and the only way to preserve liberty was by armed resistance. 
I insist that the South did not make war in defence of slavery ; 
slavery was only the incident, the point attacked. The defence was 
of all institutions, marriage, husband and wife, parent and child, as 
well. But the instinct of the great mass of this people, that instinc- 
tive perception of truth, which in this race is as unerring as a mathe- 
matical proposition, understood, grasped, appreciated at once that 
the question was a question of race domination, and they understood 
too the fundamental fact, that in all trials of strength — strength of 
body, strength of will, strength of character — the weakest must go 
to the wall, and the great, manly, just, humane heart of the master 
race pitied the inferior one. 

The great crime of the century was the emancipation of the 
negroes. They are an affectionate, trustworthy race. If the insti- 
tution of slavery had been left to work itself out under the influence 
of Christianity and civilization, the unjust and cruel incidents would 
have been eliminated, just as they have been in the institution of: 


husband and wife. At common law a man had a right to beat his 
wife with a stick not thicker than his thumb, and in England wives 
were sold in open market. Twenty years ago marriage obliterated 
a woman's existence and absorbed her in the legal entity of the man. 
Husband and wife were one, and he was the one. She could make 
no contract, nor make a will, nor hold property, except land. All 
the power to do and to think belonged to the husband. Now, under 
the law of Virginia, the married woman is the equal in all legal and 
property rights with her husband, and in all others she is his su- 

Institutions and society change by the operation of the law of jus- 
'tice and love, of right and of charity, and by its influence the negro 
would have been trained and educated into habits of industry, of 
self-restraint, of self-denial, of moral self-government, until in due 
time he would have gone into the world to make his struggle for 
survivorship on fair terms. As it is, against his will, without his as- 
sistance, he has been turned loose in America to do the best he can 
in the contest with the strongest race that ever lived. The law of 
the survival of the fittest forces the fight, and the consequence that 
whenever the colored race, black, red or yellow, has anything the 
white race want, it takes it, is working. It has done so in the 
Americas and in Asia. It is now doing so in Africa. 

Yet in the face of this irresistible law, the negro, a child of four- 
teen, has been turned loose to compete with the full grown man of 
the white race. The generation has not yet passed which saw the 
inauguration of the era of race equality, and even now the results of 
of the competition begin to be discernible. The labor unions in many 
places exclude the black man from equal privileges of work, and it 
needs no prophet to foretell the time when he will be the helot of the 
social system, excluded from all right which white men wish to en- 
joy. This will be cruel and unjust, but it will be the logical and ne- 
cessary result of sudden and general emancipation. Nothing was 
ever devised so cruel, as forcing on these children, the power and 
responsibility of the ballot. It requires powers they have net got ; it 

8 [ 51 ] 

subjects them to tests they cannotjstand, and will cause untold 
misery to them in the future. These are some of the consequences 
of the conquest to the black race. 

To the white they are also appalling. Adopting the theory of equal 
rights, and of equal capacity, as time goes on, the power of labor- 
duplicating machinery, and the reduction of the forces of nature, 
heat, light, electricity to the use of man, will multiply the labor pro- 
ductiveness of man, so that one man will produce as much as one 
thousand do now. The enormous profits of labor will accumulate in 
the few hands, the great mass will remain laborers forever. And the 
many will ask the few, How is this, that we produce the wealth, and 
you enjoy it ? Are we to be your bondsmen forever ? And then a 
new struggle will begin. 

I call attention to one fact. The institution of slavery was im- 
bedded in the life, the sentiments, the family of a people. It was 
defended by traditions, of love, respect, and gratitude. It was de- 
stroyed by the physical pov/er of " vis major,'" of superior force. The 
institution of corporate property, of stockholders and bondholders 
has no supporters but those beneficially interested in bonds and stock, 
not a sentiment surrounds it, not a tradition hallows it, not a mem- 
ory sanctifies it. When the time comes, as it surely is coming — 
when physical power, demands its share of the accumulations of la- 
bor, and seizes all bonds and stocks for the public and common 
benefit, by the right of eminent domain, then the'descendants of the 
men who got rich from the plunder of the South will understand that 
punishment is as certain as crime, and that the engineer of evil, will 
always be hoisted eventually by his own petard. These are some of 
the consequences of the conquest. 

It is to commemorate these principles, and this heroic conduct, 
this patriotic sacrifice of our men and women, that we propose to 
erect here a memorial hall of the Confederacy. 

When William, the Norman, had destroyed the English nation at 
Hastings, so the inscription read, he erected a grand memorial on 
the site of the thickest fray, and placed the high altar of the Abbey 

[ 52] 

over the very spot where Harold fell. This memorial he called 
Battle-Abbey, dedicated it to the Norman, St. Peterj, and placed it 
in charge of an order of Normon monks. The banner and the 
shields of those who died on that stricken field were hung up in the 
chapel, and the roll of their names and dignities inscribed on its 
record. Here, for four centuries, daily prayers were offered for the 
repose of their souls and matins and even-song celebrated their 
devotion and their death, But the Battle-Abbey has long ago passed 
to profane uses, and the flags of the conquerer and his knights have 
faded into dust. It cannot be so with the memorial of the Confed- 
eracy. The Battle-Abbey commemorated a ruthless raid of robbers, 
who took by the strong hand, and lived with disregard of blood. 
There was not a principle of honor, of chivalry, of justice, or right 
in that attack upon a nation, and in that overthrow of a race. With 
the power that established it, the Battle-Abbey fell and disintegrated. 
Our memorial will be here in Richmond, the heart and the grave 
of the Confederacy, and around it hovers the immortal soul of love 
and of memory, which for all time will sanctify it to all true men 
women. They will know that it is a memorial of no " Lost Cause." 
They will never believe that "we thought we were right," they will 
know, as we know, that we were right, immortally right, and that 
the conquerer was wrong, eternally wrong. The great army of the 
dead is here, the sentiment of the living is here, the memories of 
the past are here, the monuments of the future will be here. As all 
roads lead to Rome, so in the ages to come, all ties of memory, of 
sentiment, of heart, and of feeling will vibrate from Richmond. As 
every follower of the prophet, at sunset turns his face to Mecca, and 
sends up a prayer for the dead and the living, so everywhere in this 
great South Land, which was the Confederacy, whenever the trum- 
pet call of duty sounds, when the call to do right without regard to 
consequence rings over the woods and the meadows, the moun- 
tains and the valleys, the spirit of the Confederacy will rise, the 
dead of Hollywood and of Oakwood will stand in ranks, and their 
eternal memory will inspire their descendants to do right whatever 

[ 53] 

it cost of life or fortune, of danger and disaster. Lee will ride his 
bronze horse. Hill (A. P.) will be by his side, Stonewall will be there, 
Stuart's plume will float again, and the battle-line of the Confederacy 
will move on to do duty, justice, and right. The memorial of the 
Confederacy is here — not built by hands — made by memory and 
devotion ! Where else could it be ? 

In the main and centre room, on the first floor of the 
building the Reception Committee extended cordial welcome 
to all visitors. These ladies were Mrs. Joseph Bryan, Mrs. 
E. D. Hotchkiss. Mrs. J. Taylor Ellyson, Mrs. E. C. Minor, 
Mrs. James R. Werth, Mrs. Raleigh Colston, Mrs. Ann E. 
Grant, Miss May Baughman, Mrs. J. B. Lightfoot, Mrs. 
Hunter McGuire. Mrs. Frank Crump, Mrs. M. S. Smith, 
and Mrs. L. C. Daniel. 

In the east room, which will be the Virginia Room, re- 
freshments were served. 

A large and priceless collection of records and relics 
are now in the custody of the Vice-Regent, Mrs. J. Taylor 
Ellyson, and will be placed in this room as soon as suitable 
cases can be provided. 

The bureau in this room is one which occupied a place 
in the house when used as the Executive Mansion. The 
bust standing upon it (of Mr. Davis) is that which stood at 
the head of the dead chief's coffin when the body lay in state 
at the Capitol, before the re-interment in Hollywood. It is 
the gift of Colonel J. Bell Bigger. 

The west rooms on the first floor were those representing 
Mississippi and Georgia. The first was decorated with the 


Confederate colors, and contained numerous relics of special 
interest. Over the doorway was the State name in letters 
of gold. 

Among the relics were a copy of General Lee's fare- 
well address to the army at Appomattox, a sword belonging 
to Colonel Thomas August, epaulets belonging to Captain 
Pitt, slippers made of carpet taken from one of the rooms in 
the Executive Mansion during the war. 

Here the Vice-Regent, Mrs. R. N. Northen, and sev- 
eral Mississippi ladies, received. 

The Georgia Room is very large. Here will be the De 
Renne collection, considered the most valuable in existence. 
It was collected by Mrs. De Renne immediately after the 
war. She was an enthusiastic Southerner, who loved every- 
thing connected with the war, and determined to gather in 
and preserve all the records and relics she could find. 

Mrs. J. Prosser Harrison, Vice-Regent, received here 
with several Georgia ladies. 

Over the entrance to the Alabama Room was the State 
seal and the interpretation of the State name — " Here we 

The room was richly decorated and contained numerous 
relics of particular value and interest, including an original 
manuscript account of the battle of Manassas by General 
Beauregard, presented by Mrs. Augusta Evans Wilson; 
sword, epaulets, field-glass, Bible, spur, bit, saddle, blanket, 
and coat belonging to General H. D. Clayton, and sent by 
his daughter, Miss Clayton, of Eufaula, Ala. There is a reg- 

[ 55 ] 

ister in this room, in which all Alabamians visiting the Mu- 
seum are asked to write their name and address. 

Mrs. James H. Drake, Vice-Regent, received here with 
a number of Alabama ladies. 

South Carolina Room was most richly decorated and 
interesting. On the wall was the State seal and 

gg^'legend, " Semper parati." On the east wall was 
a particularly beautiful flag of blue silk, upon which 
a palmetto-tree and crescent were worked in silver. Be- 
neath it hung a palmetto wreath, sent by the members of 
the Memorial Association of South Carolina for the Jeffer- 
son Davis re-interment. On the north wall was a portrait of 
General Wade Hampton, in a palmetto wreath. In a corner 
of the room on a large easel was a portrait of the last 
battle-flag at Fort Sumter. Vice -Regent, Mrs. W. P. 
DeSaussure, and South Carolina ladies received here. 

In Maryland, oriole and black were, of course, the con- 
spicuous colors, over the main window of which the State 
name appeared in evergreen. Here was a bust of General 
Robert E. Lee, sent by the Confederate Society of the 
Army and Navy of Maryland, and executed by Volck ; a 
pocket-handkerchief belonging to the great general, donated 
by Mrs. Henry C. Scott, of Ashland; a crucifix made of 
bullets collected from the battle of the Crater and donated 
by Mrs. Randolph Tucker. Mrs. C. O'B. Cowardin, Vice- 
Regent, received here, with a number of Maryland ladies. 

Tennessee Room, which is the north-west room on the 
third floor, was tastefully furnished and decorated. Mrs. 

L 56 1 


Norman V. Randolph, Vice-Regent, and her committee, 
some of whom were Tennessee ladies, received. 

Arkansas Room was distinctive with its shield well 
placed amid the crimson and white decorations and gayly- 
colored flags, which, with the beautiful roses, made it very 
attractive. Mrs. Decatur Axtell, Vice-Regent, formerly 
Miss Cantrell, of Little Rock, Arkansas, received, 
assisted by several other ladies. 

Missouri Room was beautifully decorated with 
the Confederate colors. The State coat of-arms, on 
satin, was given in memory of Lieutenant William 
Keith, Company D, Fourth Missouri Cavalry, Mar- 
maduke's Brigade, by members of the family. 
G. P. Stacy, Vice-Regent, and Mrs. N. D. 
Werth received here. 

Kentucky Room was decorated with taste 
and was full of interest. Conspicuous in it was 
a portrait of General John C. Breckinridge, 
given by the artist, Mr. Hunleigh, cf Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky. Miss M. P. Harris, Vice-Regent, and other 
ladies received. 

The Louisiana Room was most attractive, although 
those in charge were not prepared for a display of relics. 
Mrs. George Wayne Anderson, Vice-Regent, and other 
Louisiana ladies received here. 

Texas Room was simply decorated with a large "Lone 
Star" in "living green" of smilax. A number of ladies 
received there in the evening with Mrs. McLeod Vice- 

[ 57 ] 


Regent. No relics or documents of value were exhibited, 
as suitable cases had not been prepared for the reception 
of such sacred and valued treasures. 

North Carolina Room, immediately over the Virginia 
Room, was richly decorated with the State colors. Mrs. 
T. D. Neal, Vice-Regent, has seme valuable relics and 
records from "The Old North State." A party of North 
Carolina ladies received with her. 

Used by General William Dorsey Pender, of North Carolina, who died July 1< 
J 863, from the effects of a wound received at the battle of Gettysburg. 

58 ] 

Florida Room was tropically luxuriant with towering 
palms, in boxes draped with Spanish moss, and large green 
leaves, as cool and fresh as though just cut from their native 
swamps, decorating doors and windows. Beautiful shells 
and sea-weed, fragrant roses and stately japonicas, fresh 


from their home, though so far away, made it a typical 
room. A handsome State flag of softest white, with seal 
of State painted on white silk in centre, new for the occa- 

9 [59] 

sion, gave distinctiveness to the scene. Many valuable war 
relics — three flags which had seen much service, two bear- 
ing significant legends, " Any Fate but Submission " on the 
one, on the other, " Liberty or Death " ; a cutlass from the 
first Confederate cruiser, the "Jeff Davis"; a piece of 
crockery with design and motto, "Aide toi et Dieu l'aidera," 
in centre, made expressly for Confederate navy ; a canteen 
with a most touching history, and many other things, made 
this room one of the most attractive in the building. Mrs. 
R. A. Patterson, Vice-Regent, received with several Florida 


SOUTH CAROLINA seceded on December 18, 1860. 
Major Anderson was then with one hundred men at 
Fort Moultrie, which he evacuated one night after destroying 
what he could not remove, this being the first overt act, 
the beginning of hostilities, and seized Fort Sumter, 
where reinforcements might reach him. 

January 9, 1861, the steam transport, "Star of the 
West," attempting to go to his relief, was turned back by 
warning shots. 

April 11, General Beauregard demanded the surren- 
der of the fort, offering to transport garrison and officers to 
any United States port. On the 12th the bombardment of 
Fort Sumter begun, to which its guns responded, and on 
the 13th Major Anderson capitulated, and was sent with 
his men to the United States' fleet lying outside the bar. 
No life was lost on either side during this first engagement 
of the war. 

Dupont's powerful fleet attempted to enter Charleston 
Harbor, April 17, 1863. After a hot engagement of two 
hours, it retired completely defeated. Dahlgren succeeded 
Dupont, and General Gillmore effecting a landing on Morris 

[61 ] 

Island in rear of Fort Sumter, it was attacked by sea and 
land, its guns dismounted, its walls pulverized. Artillery- 
men were replaced by infantry. Attacks were made upon 
the ruins by boats, by fleet, by day and by night All were 
repulsed. Says the English historian, Greg: "All the en- 
gineering genius of Gillmore, and the perseverance of Dahl- 
gren, served only to bring into relief the superior ability 
and matchless tenacity of the Confederates. In the annals 
of the Federal Army and Navy there is no exploit compara- 
ble to the defence of Charleston Harbor." (Hist. U. S., 

V. II., p. 306.) 

On the night of 

August 21, 1863, 
" The Swamp An- 
gel," 8-inch Par- 
""' rot rifle, opened 

fire upon the city 

- of Charleston 
from the Marsh 
Battery on Morris 
Island, a range of 
five miles. 
Vfl Fort Sumter 
jg/^ never surren- 
dered, but was 
evacuated on February 17, 1865, "a re- 
sult forced by Sherman's march with 
70,000 from Savannah, Ga., to Columbia, 

[ 62 ] 

from Columbia to Cheraw, and by the exhausted resources- 
of the Confederacy. The torch was mercilessly applied 
by this army to Hardeeville, Grahamville, McPherson- 
ville, Barnwell, Blackville, Midway, Orangeburg, Lex- 
ington, and to the capital of the State." (Milit. Op. Gen- 
eral Beauregard, Colonel Roman.) "Sherman promised 
protection to the city, (Columbia) and, in spite of his solemn 

-a*. ***""& 

promise, he burned it to the ground deliberately, systemati- 
cally and atrociously." (lb. V. II., p. 373, letter Gen. 
Hampton.) "We were determined to produce results . . . 
to make every man, woman and child in the South feel that 
if they dared rebel against the flag of their country they 
must either die or submit." (lb. Sherman's Address at 
Salem, 111.) 


" At the last moment" (February 17, 1865), says Elise 
Rhett Lewis in her " Fort Sumter," " Major Huguenin took 
the beloved flag from its staff, folded it carefully and brought 
it away." An oil painting from the original of this battle- 
scarred flag now hangs in the South Carolina Room, donated 
by the Washington Light Infantry of Charleston, S. C, who 
now possess the flag. 

South Carolina Room in Confederate Museum (President Davis's 
Chamber). — Regent, Miss May Singleton Hampton, Columbia, S. 
C. ; Vice-Regent, Mrs. W. P. De Saussure. Richmond Va. 

3w j dffT^: ^iH^hS^ ** %4ZM r 

[ 64] 

ISSISSIPPI'S ordinance of secession, 
January 9, 1 86 1 , ended with these words, 
" and shall henceforth be a free, sover- 
eign and independent State." Honor- 
able Jefferson Davis said, in closing his 
farewell address to the Senate of the 
United States, January 21, 1861, " Putting our trust in God, 
and in our firm hearts and strong arms, we will vindicate 
the right as best we may." State Sovereignty was ever 
his watchword, and the watchword of his State. Mississ- 
ippi gave to the Confederacy her first and only Presi- 
dent. His inauguration in Montgomery stands out boldly 
in the history of the South as an occasion of solemn 
grandeur. After his inaugural address, standing before 
that immense throng, one hand on the Bible, the other 
raised to heaven, he listened to the reading of the 
oath, at its conclusion saying, in solemn, reverent tones, 
" So help me God." Thus was launched the Ship of 
State, at whose helm he bravely stood, guiding her as 
best he could, going down with her into the deep waters 
that engulfed her. What Mississippi suffered — how brave 
were her sons, belongs to the history of the whole 
war. Lamar Fontaine, the hero of twenty-seven hard- 
fought battles, and the author of " All Quiet Along the 
Potomac To-night," was a Mississippian. The battle of 

1 65] 

Corinth, the siege of Vicksburg, Champion's Hill, Harris- 
burg, give to her a glory that is imperishable. 

General Sterling Price says in his report of the battle 
of Corinth, " The history of this war contains no bloodier 
page, perhaps, than that which will record this fiercely con- 
tested battle. The strongest expressions fall short of my 
admiration of the gallant conduct of officers and men. 
Words cannot add lustre to the fame they have acquired 
through deeds of noble daring, which will shed about officer 
and soldier who stood to his arms through this struggle a 
halo of glory as imperishable as it is brilliant." 

Mississippi Room in Confederate Museum (Private Reception- 
Room of President Davis). — Regent, Miss Varina Ann (Winnie) 
Davis, New York City ; Vice-Regent, Mrs. R. N. Northen, Rich- 
mond, Va. 

This Cutlass was of the Armament of the Confederate States Letter of Marque, 
.Privateer " Jeff Davis, 1 ' which sailed from Charleston, June 28th, 1861; cruised 
off the Atlantic coast ; made eleven captures, and was wrecked on St. Augustine Bar, 
August, 1861. 


LORIDA — 1860! And the wires flashed 
the news South Carolina has seceded ; 
then Mississippi, then Florida, on Jan- 
uary 1 Oth ,1861. The first engagement in 
the State was the unsuccessful attempt 
on October 9th, 1861, to capture Fort 
Pickens, on Santa Rosa Island, guard- 
ing the harbor of Pensacola. There 
1 were but few battles fought in Florida, 
that at Olustee being the most important. This freedom 
from invasion enabled this State to contribute largely to 
the commissary supplies of the Confederate Army. 

Florida furnished 12,000 troops. Some of the most 
prominent commanders were Generals E. Kirby Smith, 
Loring, Patton Anderson, Finegan, Perry, W. G. M. Davis. 
Finley, and Wm. Miller. 

To this State belongs the honor of having had the 
youngest heroes regularly drilled for home defence, some of 
them not being over twelve years of age, and on one occa- 
sion with no ammunition but bird shot, they helped to re- 
pulse a skirmishing party, showing themselves no laggards 
in the field. 

Colonel Dickison (Florida's Mosby) gives an interest- 
ing episode in the life of General John C. Breckinridge, 
Secretary of the Confederate Navy: "In May, 1865, at 

10 [ 67 ] 

Waldo, Florida, two days before my 
command was paroled, I received a 
note signed 'Confederate officer,' 
asking my immediate presence at 
Gainesville. I started at once. On 
reaching there was conducted to 
General Breckinridge, who was atten- 
ded by two of his staff, Colonel Wil- 
son, chief-of-staff, and Captain Wood, 
a grandson of General Zach. Taylor, 
and his body-servant. He instantly 
made known his purpose in sending for 
me. He was determined to reach, if 
(^p~~} possible, the Trans- Mississippi Army; 
thought the safest route would be by 
way of Cuba, and wished to know 
if I could arrange to send him imme- 
diately. I had nothing but a life-boat 
which I had saved from the captured gun- 
boat ' Columbine,' and secured by sinking in a lake. I 
told the General this was at his service ; he accepted 
it, employed parties who, with the help of some of my 
men, hauled the boat to the Indian river, and the brave 
little band embarked. They tossed from island to island until 
they reached the Cuban shore, there to hear of the down- 
fall of the whole Confederacy." 

Florida has by heroic endeavor provided a Home for 
her veterans, and is by liberal contributions of both money 

[ 68] 

and relics preserving in the " Confederate Memorial Hall " 
memories of their valor and sacrifice. * 

Florida Room in Confederate Museum. — Regent, Mrs. Fran- 
cis P. Flemming, Jacksonville, Fla.; Vice-Regent. Mrs. R. A. Pat- 
terson, Richmond, Va. 

LABAMA on January 11, 1861, wheeled 
into line with South Carolina, Mississippi 
and Florida, as an "independent, sover- 
eign State." On February 4, 1861, in 
Montgomery, was convened the first Con- 
gress of the seceding States, which pro- 
posed the Provisional Constitution of the new Confederacy. 
This constitution was adopted February 8. On February 
9, Mr. Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, was elected Presi- 
dent of the Confederate States of America. In Montgomery, 
on February 18, Mr. Davis was inaugurated. The Provi- 
sional Congress there in session May 21, resolved "that 
this Congress adjourn on Tuesday next to meet again 
on July 20, at Richmond, Virginia." Mr. Walker, of Ala- 
bama, was in Mr. Davis's first Cabinet. Mr. John Forsyth, 
of Alabama, was one of the commission of three appointed 
within a week of the inauguration for the "purpose of negoti- 
ating friendly relations between the governments of the Fed- 
eral and the Confederate States. The memorable defence 
of Mobile adds lustre to this State. Virginia's distinguished 
son, General Dabney H. Maury, commanded here. This 
gallant soldier and courteous gentleman of the old school 
still dwells among us, teaching our children lessons of hero- 
ism by his histories of the war. 

At Citronville, forty miles north of Mobile, occurred 

[ 70 1 

the last surrender of the Confederate forces. There, in the 
early days of May, 1865, General Richard Tsfylor and Com- 
modore Farrand, surrendered to General Canby and Rear- 
Admiral Thatcher. 

Alabama has a long list of distinguished soldiers — ■ 
Longstreet, Clayton, Deas, Pettus, Withers, Pelham, Rodes, 
Garrott, Roddy, Gracie, Johnston, and others. 

Alabama Room in Confederate Museum (Private Office of Pres- 
ident Davis). — Regent, Miss Mary Clayton, Eufaula, Ala. ; Vice- 
Regent, Mrs. James H. Drake. Richmond. Va. 

[ 71 ] 

EORGIA seceded from the Union 19th 
of January, 1861. Had one hundred and 
fifty thousand soldiers in the war ; twenty- 
two thousand killed ; thirty-five thousand 
wounded. At first battle of Manassas 
General Beauregard exclaimed, as the 
Eighth Georgia regiment passed, " I salute the Eighth Geor- 
gia with my hat off — history shall never forget you." Upon 
this roll of honor are the names Generals John B. Gordon, 
Francis S. Bartow, William J. Hardee, Joseph Wheeler, 
Thomas R. R. Cobb, Lafayette McLaws, W. H. S. Walker 
and Commodore Tatnall. 

Georgia's patriotism is still gloriously maintained in her 
care of her indigent and maimed soldiers. She pays an- 
nually, in pensions, five hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 

The Mary De Renne collection, in the keeping of the Con- 
federate Memorial Literary Society, is considered the most 
valuable in the South. It consists mainly of documents, 
the original Constitution of the Confederate States being 
one of them. 

Georgia Room in Confederate Museum (Drawing-Room). — Re- 
gent, Mrs, Robert Emory Park. Macon. Ga. : Vice-Regent, Mrs. J. 
Prosser Harrison, Richmond, Va. 

[ 72 ] 

OUISIANA illustrates most brilliantly the 
fact that the Southern Confederacy was 
a union, not only of free and independent 
States, but of States whose individuality 
was as marked, as was their heroic devo- 
tion to the common cause of Constitu- 
tional Liberty. Other States can boast 
of as brilliant officers ; can tell of deeds as brave ; of cam- 
paigns as glorious ; of heroism as stern and unflinching ; but 
no where else, in all the galaxy of States, does there shine 
forth so conspicuously the debonair gaiety, the brilliant aban- 
don, which sent the Louisiana men to the front to do and 
die, with the fortitude of Stonewall Jackson, but with the gay 
insouciance, so infinitely touching, so irresistibly attractive— 
gaily, as to a banquet — but as surely, as inevitably, as fate. 

The fall of New Orleans and its occupancy by B. F. But- 
ler is a mournful chapter in her history. So atrocious and 
dastardly were his acts, that President Davis issued a procla- 
mation pronouncing and declaring "the said Benjamin But- 
ler to be a felon, deserving of capital punishment." " In the 
official reports and in the traditions of both armies, the 
names of the batteries of the Washington Artillery have 
frequent and honorable mention." (Rise and Fall of the 
Confederate Government.) The charge of the Louisiana 
Tigers at the battle of Gettysburg shows their dash and reso- 

l 73] 

lute spirit. President Davis, in his speech at a banquet of 
the Louisiana division of the Army of Northern Virginia, De- 
cember 6th, 1878. said : " Louisiana was everywhere, when 
blood was to be shed in maintenance of truth and liberty, 
and the rights she had inherited." Mr. Davis died in New 
Orleans, La., December 5th, 1889, and when he was laid 
in state in the Council Chamber of the City Hall, from mid- 
night, December 6th, to noon, December 1 1th, a guard of 
honor from the Washington Artillery, in full uniform, kept 
watch beside his bier. In the two years that his body lay in 
the tomb of the Army of Northern Virginia in that city the 
Louisiana soldiers kept guard day and night beside his tomb. 
To General Beauregard, of Louisiana, belongs the distinc- 
tion of having originated the battle-flag of the Southern Con- 
federacy, whose history will " go sounding down the ages, 
furl its folds though now we must." One of the first three 
flags, made of "ladies' dresses," was sent to General Beau- 
regard, he entrusting it to his wife at New Orleans for safe- 
keeping. At the fall of New Orleans she sent it by a Span- 
ish man-of-war to Cuba. At the close of the war General 
Beauregard presented it to the Washington Artillery, where 
it now is. 

Louisiana has a long list of gallant soldiers, prominent 
among these are Generals Beauregard, Richard Taylor, Brax- 
ton Bragg, Harry Hays, Leonidas Polk, John Taylor Wood, 
Blanchard, Gardner, Hebert, Gibson, Peck, Nichols, York, 

Louisiana Room in Confederate Museum. — Regent, Mrs. D. A. 
S. Vaught ; Vice-Regent, Mrs. William C. Bentley. 

[ 74 ] 

EXAS, unlike any other State, was once 
a Republic, and wrested her independence 
from Mexico, was admitted into the Union 
December 27, 1845. The history of this 
great State is interesting and romantic, 
settled as she was by the best blood from 
other States, principally Virginia and 
Georgia. President Davis, in his welcome address to Texas 
troops in Virginia, said : " Texans ! The troops from other 
States have their reputation to gain. The sons of the de- 
fenders of the Alamo have theirs to main- 
tain. I am assured you will be faithful to 
the trust." i/ 

The appreciation of General ' . m X 

Robert E. Lee is conveyed in — | I | 

the following letter to Senator ^ % lii^L^^.. /' 

Wigfall, of Texas, who repre- '*•' % ,1 ■ ^HH 'M 
sented the Lone Star State in vm'M If 

the Congress of the Confede- 
rate States: 



Headquarters Army of Virginia, 

September 21st, 18 62. 
General L. T. Wigfall : 

General, — I have not heard from you with regard to the new Texas 

11 [751 

regiments which you promised to raise for the army. I need them 
very much. I rely upon those we have in all our tight places, and 
fear I have to call on them too often. They have fought grandly 
and nobly, and we must have more of them. Please make every 
possible exertion to get them on for me. You must help me in this 
matter. With a few more regiments as Hood now has, as an exam- 
ple of daring bravery, I could feel more confident of the campaign. 

Very respectfully yours, 

R. E. LEE, General. 

One of the most illustrious leaders of the Fourth Texas, 
Hood's brigade, was Colonel Bradfute Warwick, of Rich- 


mond, Va., whose daring and intrepid bravery won for him 
the love and undying affection of the brave men he led to 
victory at the battle of Gaines's Mill, laying down his life at 
that moment. Colonel Warwick was a son of whom Virgi- 
nia may well be proud. 

Texas room in Memorial Hall has been proudly accepted 
by the Daughters of the Confederacy of Texas. The V. Jef- 
ferson Davis branch at Galveston held a meeting in April. It 

[ 76] 

was resolved to place memorials to several noted Texas gen- 
erals. Records and relics are being collected. The Gal- 
veston branch of the Daughters of the Confederacy, in co- 
operation throughout Texas, will, in the near future, place a 
memorial window in the Texas room to the memory of 
Hood's brigade, thus doing honor to privates and officers of 
this noble legion. 

Texas Room in Confederate Museum. — Regent, Mrs. A. V. 
Winkler, Corsicana, Texas ; Vice-Regent, Mrs. Cazneau McLeod. 
Richmond, Va. 


■A if 


[ 77] 

RGINIA, whose history attests her strug- 
gle to perpetuate the Union she mainly 
contributed to establish, could decide but 
one way after the call of Mr. Lincoln for 
seventy-five -thousand troops to coerce 
her Southern sisters. Two days there- 
after, on the 17th of April, 1861, she 
passed the ordinance of secession. 

# " Then, taking down her ancient 
shield and spear from her Capitol walls, 
she moved grandly to the head of the battle line, with 
all the enthusiasm of the novice, and all the intrepedity 
of the veteran. As her bugle blast resounded through 
her borders, there came pouring forth from her lowly 
hamlets and her stately cities — from her mountain fast- 
nesses and her secluded valleys — a shining host of war- 
riors, as brave and true as ever clustered under a conqueror's 

In every section Virginia's determination to resist invasion 
and coercion never wavered. Her part in this conflict is written 
on her battle-fields, her demolished cities, her desolate 
hearthstones, as well as in the deeds of her brave sons and 

* Speech of John^W. Daniel, University of Virginia, 1866. 
The swords of Colonel W. ]. Pegram and of General A . P. Hill are shown in the 
initial letter to this article. 

[ 78 ] 

Virginia is one vast Battle Abbey, where stood her kingly 
sons from private to general ; her muster-rolls are wreathed 
around with glory — her memorials are electric sparks that 
will ever fire the patriot heart — her swords and battle- 
flags — her muskets and sabres are mute heralds 
of that "time that tried men's souls." In the 
center of this vast Battle Abbey stand the 
two heroes whose history "the world 
knows by heart." Thomas Jo- 
Jackson, whose aggressive mil- 
whose tenacity and 
wrested victory 

itary genius, 

strength of will 


from the very jaws of 
forced marches — his flank 

defeat. His 

ments — his quick and brilliant 
tacks — are the admiration of all military 
critics. His was a genius that baffles anal- 
yses — that forced the oft-expressed opinion that 
he was inspired. And here stands Robert E. Lee, the 
peerless ; true in his Christian character — grand in his herioc 
endurance and bravery — superb as a general — "the incar- 
nation of the spirit that animated and hallowed our struggle 
for freedom." 

Virginia Room in Confederate Museum (the dining-room of Pres- 
ident Davis). — Regent, Miss Mildred Lee, Lexington, Va. ; Vice- 
Regent, Mrs. J. Taylor Ellyson, Richmond, Va. 

[ 79] 

RKANSAS'S demand, February 6, 1861, 
for the surrender of the United States 
Arsenal, at Little Rock, and her occu- 
pancy of it, was the first act in defending 
her threatened liberties. Soon after 
Fort Smith was taken possession of by 
the State. " The Union sentiment in 
. this State was strong up to the time of 
Mr. Lincoln's proclamation for troops;" after that not a 
vestige of this feeling remained, as is shown by Governor 
Rector's reply, April 22d, 1861 : 

" In answer to your demand for troops from Arkansas to subjugate 
the Southern States, I have to say that none will be furnished. The 
demand is only adding insult to injury. The people of this Com- 
monwealth are free men, not slaves, and will defend to the last ex- 
tremity their honor, lives and property against Northern mendacity 
and usurpation." 

On May 6th a convention was called, and the ordi- 
nance of secession passed ; vote, 69 to 1. 

" * At the announcement the assembly, lobby and gal- 
laries broke into the wildest excitement and cheering. Just 
back of the building a battery had been stationed anticipating 
the result, and the guns bellowed forth a salute that added 
to the intensity of the occasion." 

"To arms!" "to arms!" was the cry which brought to the 

* Hempstead's History of Arkansas. 

front an enthusiastic army of volunteers. " * It is estimated 
that out of a voting population of sixty-one thousand one 
hundred and ninety-eight in 1860, fifty thousand men en- 
tered the Confederate service during the progress of the 

Arkansas is justly proud of her long list of heroes, 
prominent among whom are Generals Churchill, Fagan, 
McNair, Hindman, and last and greatest was " f Patrick 
Ronayne Cleburne, who entered first as a private in the 
Ze\\ Rifles, went out as Captain of the Zell Rifles, Colonel 
of the First Arkansas Infantry, Brigadier-General, Major- 
General, was the idol of the army and one of its best gen- 
erals. His successful defence of Ringgold Gap, November 
27, 1863, earned for him the thanks of the Confederate 
Congress. He was killed at the battle of Franklin, Novem- 
ber 30, 1864, while gallantly leading his men in that des- 
perate and hopeless encounter." $ 

Arkansas Room in Confederate Museum. — Regent, Miss Frances. 
M. Scott. Van Buren, Ark.; Vice-Regent, Mrs. Decatur Axtell, 
Richmond, Va. 

1 * Hempstead's History of Arkansas. 


t " On the morning of the battle of Franklin, Term., Major-General Patrick 
Ronayne Cleburne, while riding along the line saw an old friend, a Captain in his 
command, whose bare feet were bleeding from cold and other causes. Alighting 
from his horse, he asked the Captain to pull off his boots for him. The Captain 
did so. General Cleburne mounted his horse, saying as he rode off, he was tired 
of wearing them;" " could do very well without them;" that he "must put them 
on and wear them." In this condition General Cleburne was found dead at the 
dose of the battle. 

[81 ] 

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NORTH CAROLINA passed the ordinance of seces- 
sion May 20, 1861, and in the war which followed 
"a hundred and fifty thousand of her men crowded to the 
fray and grew famous on more than a hundred fields. " # 
Official war records at Washington show that North Caro- 
lina's loss in killed was 14,522. In wounded and of disease 
in hospitals, 20,602. At the battle of Big Bethel, Va., the 
first martyr to the cause was Henry Wyatt, of Edgecombe 
county, N. C. 

" Half the men killed and wounded at Chancellorsville 
belonged to North Carolina Regiments." — Gov. Graham. 

Of the ninety-two regiments constituting the divisions 
of Longstreet, Jackson, D. H. Hill, A. P. Hill, forty-six 
regiments were from North Carolina. 

Official records at Washington report: " In the battle 
of Gettysburg the 26th N. C. Regiment of Pettigrew's 

* Moore's History. 

I 82] 

Brigade, went into the action with 800 men and lost 588 in 
killed and wounded, and 120 missing, M©st of this loss 
was July 1st when this regiment fought the 151st Pennsyl- 
vania and Cooper's Battery. The 26th N. C. had only 216 
men left for duty when it went into Longstreet's assault on 
the third day, and on the following day only 80 men were 
left. On the same day company C. of the 1 1th N. C. lost 
two officers and thirty-four out of thirty-eight men. Cap- 
tain Bird of this Company, and the four remaining men then 
went into Pickett's charge." The flag-bearer was shot and 
Captain Bird brought out the flag himself. This was the 
severest regimental loss during the war. In this great bat- 
tle were twelve grandsons of one lady, the mother of Gov. 
J. M. Morehead. 

Among the North Carolina officers were Generals 
Bragg, D. H. Hill, Polk, McCulloch, Pender, Hoke, Petti- 
grew, Ramseur and R. D. Johnston. She established hos- 
pitals at Raleigh and other places in the State ; also sustained 
one at Petersburg, of which Miss Mary Pettigrew, sister of the 
General, became matron. North Carolina also had "one of 
the swiftest ships in world, the Lord Clyde, whose name was 
changed to the Advance in honor of her great war Governor, 
Z. B. Vance, which ran the blockade for fifteen months until 
the fall of Fort Plsher from Wilmington to Bermuda, export- 
ing 137,937 bales of cotton and importing superior clothing 
and shoes for her soldiers and for other soldiers ; also equip- 
ments and supplies of necessaries for their families at home. 
Among these thousands of cotton and wool cards which en- 

12 [ 83 ] 

abled the women at home to clothe themselves and their 

North Carolina has her Soldiers' Home, Hospital, Con- 
federate Museum, Pension Bureau, and last year, May 20th, 
at Raleigh, unveiled a handsome monument to her soldiers 
costing more than $25,000. 

Carolina, Carolina, Heaven's blessings attend her. 
While we live we will cherish, protect and defend her. 
Though scorners may sneer at and witlings defame her, 
How our hearts swell with gladness whenever we name her. 

Hurrah! hurrah! the Old North State forever. 
Hurrah ! hurrah ! the good Old North State ! 

Tho' too true to herself e'er to crouch to oppression, 
Who can yield to just rule a more loyal submission ? 
While she envies not others their merited glory. 
Say who's name stands the foremost in liberty's story? 
Hurrah ! 

North Carolina Room in Confederate Museum (The Nur- 
sery). — Regent, Mrs. Christophor Woodbridge McLean, Newberne, 
N. C. : Vice-Regent, Mrs. E. T. Brodnax, Richmond, Va. 


ENNESSEE will not furnish a 
single man for coercion, but fifty 
thousand, if necessary, for the 
defence of our rights, or those 
of our Southern brethren." 
(From response of Gov. Harris 
to President Lincoln's call for 
troops, just after the fall of Fort 

Seceded June 8th, 1861. 
Contributed to the Confederacy 
forty-four of its four hundred 
and seventy-four general officers 
of all grades in the regular military service, two lieuten- 
ant-generals, eight major-generals, thirty-four brigadier- 
generals, and over eighty thousand subordinate officers and 
enlisted men, ten thousand of whom gave up their lives, 
more than three thousand of them having been killed in 

" I speak for that heroic State who was baptized in her 
infancy with the sprinkling of revolutionary blood on King's 
Mountain ; who five years afterwards struck again for inde- 
pendence under the banner of the daring young State of 
Franklin ; who grappled single-handed and alone for fifty 
years with the dusky warriors of the forest, in all their bat- 

[ 85 l 

ties from the Kentucky line to the Southern Gulf ; who beat 
back the British legions at New Orleans ; who smote the 
false Spaniard at Pensacola ; who rushed with Taylor into 
the breach at Monterey, and shared in the triumphal march 
from Vera Cruz to Mexico. Thrice has she furnished to 
the nation in times of peril a chief magistrate, each of signal 
abilities. * * * And although she has so recently laid away 
beneath the sods of a hundred battle-fields a wealth of intel- 
lect and manhood sufficient to enrich an empire, she can 
still point with pride to a host of living children worthy of 
their noble lineage." (From an address of Hon. William 
H. Stephens, June 15th, 1871.) 

Furnished, in the person of Lieutenant-General N. B. 
Forrest, " the most remarkable military genius developed 
by the war." 

" I sometimes fancy that were I a king 
Of the princely knights of the Golden Ring, 
With the song of the minstrel in mine ear. 
And the tender legend that trembles here. 
I'd give the best on his bended knee. 
The whitest soul of my chivalry. 
For ' Little Giffin,' of Tennessee." 

—Francis O. Ticknor. 

Tennessee Room in Confederate Museum. — Regent, Mrs. Keller 
Anderson, Memphis. Tenn.; Vice-Regent, Mrs. Norman V. Ran- 
dolph, Richmond, Va. 


ISSOURI, like Kentucky, strove to re- 
main neutral, but her demands, her 
overtures, her concessions to the Fede- 
ral Government, were all in vain. To 
Mr. Lincoln's call for troops Governor 
Jackson replied : "Requisition is illegal, 
unconstitutional, revolutionary, inhuman, 
diabolical, and cannot be complied with," Then came the 
massacre at Camp Jackson ; next followed the removal of 
arms from the arsenal near St. Louis. Her call for fifty 
thousand troops brought to the front a patriot army, whose 
equipments were mostly squirrel rifles and shot guns. 
"Trace-chains, iron rods, hard pebbles, and smooth stones 
were substituted for shot. This unequipped army, with 
Gen. Sterling Price as leader, defied the threats of a power- 
ful government to crush her, took up the gauntlet thrown at 
her feet, and dared to make war in defence of the laws and 
liberties of her people. 

" The wrongs she suffered, the brave efforts of her un- 
armed people to defend their hearthstones and their liberties 
against the desecration and destruction of both, form a 
melancholy chapter in the history of the United States." 
('• Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government," Jefferson 

So intense throughout the South was the feeling for 


Missouri, that, the Confederate Congress appropriated, August 
6th, 1861, one million dollars to aid her. 

At Neosho, by proclamation, Governor Jackson assem- 
bled the legislature, and the ordinance of secession was 
passed August, 1861. 

Boonville, Devall's Bluff, Fredericktown, Pilot Knob, 
Jefferson City, Carthage, Springfield, Lexington, are her 
principal battle grounds. It was at the latter place that 
General Price " used bales of hemp, which were rolled before 
the men as they advanced, forming a moving rampart that 
was proof against shot, and only to be overcome by a sortie 
in force, which the enemy did not dare to make. On came 
the hempen breastworks, while Price's artillery continued an 
effective fire." 

Missouri Room in Confederate Museum. — Regent, Mrs. Judge 
L. B. Valliont, St. Louis, Mo.; Vice- Regent. Mrs. G. P. Stacy, 
Richmond, Va. 



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ENTUCKY, like all the Southern States, 
strongly advocated the principle of State 
sovereignty. She made no decision ad- 
verse to this principle when she declared 
she would hold the position of neutrality 
in the impending struggle between the 
States seceding and those adhering to 
the Federal Government Failing in this, 
her chivalrous sons left the home where they could not 
serve the cause of right against might, and nobly shared 
the fortunes of their Southern brothers on many a blood- 
stained field. 

Gen. John H. Morgan's dashing raids startled the South 
in 1862. In July of that year, in twenty-four days, with one 
thousand men, he traveled over a thousand miles, captured 
seventeen towns, destroying all the government supplies and 
arms in them, dispersed about fifteen hundred home guards, 
and paroled nearly twelve hundred regular troops. Loss in 
killed, wounded and missing, about ninety men. Kentucky 
may well point with pride to such sons as Albert Sidney 
Johnston, John H. Morgan, John C. Breckinridge, William 
Preston Johnston, and S. B. Buckner. 

After the fall of Richmond, when President Davis was 
making his way through South Carolina, there were six. 

[ 89] 

soldiers, all belonging to the Second Kentucky Cavalry, who 
refused to leave him, although their brigades and the whole 
escort had disbanded and left — Lieutenant Baker, privates 
Sanders, Smith, Heath, Walbert, and Harkness. 

Governor Magoffin's reply to Mr. Lincoln's call for 
troops is characteristic of Kentucky's pluck and spirit : 

" Your dispatch is received. In answer, I say em- 
phatically, Kentucky will furnish no troops for the wicked 
purpose of subduing her sister Southern States." 

Kentucky Room in Confederate Museum. — Regent, Mrs. Nor- 
bourne Gait Grey, Louisville, Ky. ; Vice-Regent, Miss M. P. Harris, 
Richmond, Va. 

[ 90 

The State of Maryland — though she 
never seceded from the United States, 
nor supported the Confederate States in 
the war by official action — performed by 
her sons and daughters efficient service 
in support of the cause of the South. 

The Marylanders have always claimed that they gave 
20,000 of their young men to the Army of the Confederate 
States. There is no possible way of verifying that state- 
ment, but every country neighborhood in Maryland was 
stripped of its youth and they were scattered, enlisted in 
the ranks of every State from Virginia to Texas. 

The organized troops, batteries, and companies from 
Maryland were in 1863 organized into one command, desig- 
nated as the Maryland Line. It consisted of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Ridgely Brown, First Maryland Cavalry ; Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel James R. Herbert, Second Maryland Infantry; 
Captain W. F. Demont, First Maryland Artillery ; Captain 
W. H. Griffin, Second Maryland Artillery (Baltimore Light) ; 
Captain W. S. Chew, Fourth Maryland Artillery (Chesa- 
peake). The First Maryland Infantry had been mustered 
out August 12, 1862. The Second Maryland Cavalry, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Harry Gilmore, was serving in the Valley, and 

13 [ 91 ] 

the Third Maryland Artillery, Captain H. B. Latrobe, was 
with the Army of Tennessee. 

The Maryland Line was commanded by Colonel Bradley 
T. Johnson, with the following field and staff : George W. 
Booth, Captain and Acting Adjutant General; Wilson C. 
Nicholas, Captain and Acting Inspector General ; Andrew C. 
Trippe, Lieutenant and Ordnance Off icer ; George H. Kyle, 
Major and Commissary of Subsistence ; Charles W. Hard- 
ing, Major and Quartermaster; Richard P. Johnson, Sur- 
geon ; Rev. Thomas Duncan, Chaplain. 

During the winter of 1863-64 it was posted at Hanover 
Junction, and guarded the bridges over the North and South 
Anna and Middle Rivers, and covered the flank of Richmond 
down the Pamunkey to New Kent Courthouse, and per- 
formed that responsible service to the satisfaction of General 
Lee. The First Regiment, Colonel Bradley T. Johnson, 
commanding, in Jackson's Valley campaign covered his ad- 
vance when he was moving toward the enemy, and his rear 
when he was in retreat. 

It was complimented by a general order from General 
Ewell, and by General Jackson in his report. 

The Second Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel James R. 
Herbert, was the first command inside the Federal works 
on Culp's Hill, at Gettysburg,where it lost fifty-five per cent, 
of its strength, Lieutenant-Colonel James R. Herbert and 
Major W. W. Goldsboro fearfully wounded, and Captain 
William H. Murray and the flower of its officers killed. 

The First Cavalry saved Richmond from Kilpatrick 

L 92 ] 

and Dahlgren's raid in March, 1864, and was complimented 
in reports and orders by Major-General Arnold Elzey and 
Lieutenant-General Wade Hampton. 

The Artillery Batteries were admirably disciplined, and 
fought in every battle in Virginia. On the high sea Mary- 
landers did equally brilliant service. 

Admirals Semmes and Buchanan and Captains Maffit 
and Hollins are names that will be household words for gal- 
lantry, genius and devotion for generations. 

To the army Maryland furnished her full quota of 
famous soidiers : Major-General Arnold Elzey, Major-Gen- 
eral Isaac Trimble, Brigadier-Generals James J. Archer, 
Bradley T. Johnson, Henry Little, George H. Steuart, Floyd 
Tilghman and Charles S. Winder, besides a long list of field 
officers commanding regiments and battalions from other 

Maryland Room in Memorial Hall. — -Regent, Mrs. Charles 
Marshall, Baltimore, Md. ; Vice-Regent, Mrs. C. O'B. Cowardin, 
Richmond, Va. 


mmer; -urn 

((' I ^HE SOLID SOUTH" has been for many years a 
A term of reproach hurled at our land by our enemies, 
who in jest uttered a deep and lasting truth. From Mary- 
land to Texas, from the Ohio River to the Gulf of Mexico, 
one burning patriotism, one lofty hope, animated the whole 
stretch of country, and during those long, weary years of 
1860-'65 welded into one, for all time, our people. As the 
rays of light can be separated at will from each other, so 
during that crucial test each State had its own local color 
and usefulness. But when all the colors are gathered to- 
gether in a prism it sheds a transparent, steady ray; so 
when the love, pain, toil, tears, affliction, distress, and valor 


were collected from all the States, then was found, pure 
and abiding, the strong, clear light of Duty, concentrated in 


Solid South Room in Memorial Hall, — Regent, Mrs. Varina 
Jefferson Davis, New York city ; Vice-Regent, Miss May Greer 
Baughman, Richmond, Va. 


This pin was designed for the " Solid South " table of the ba2aar held to raise 
funds for the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument and the Confederate Museum. Its sales 
have up to this time {1896) realized a profit of over $1 ,700. It is still the souvenir 
pin of the Museum. 


OFFICERS, 1636. 

Mrs. Joseph Bryan. 

Honorary Vice-President, 
Mrs. E. D. Hotchkiss. 

Vice-Presidents , 

1st. Mrs. E. C. Minor, 

2nd. Mrs. Raleigh Colston. 

3rd. Mrs. James H. Grant. 

Mrs. M. S. Smith. 

Recording Secretary, 
Mrs. Stephen Putney. 

Corresponding Secretary, 

Mrs. Lizzie Cary Daniel. 



Membership, Mrs. M. L. Van Doren. 
Finance, Mrs. Raleigh Colston. 

Grounds, Mrs. E. D. Hotchkiss. 

Ways and Means, Mrs. George M. West. 
Relic, Mrs. James R. Werth. 

House, Mrs. James H. Grant, 

Publication, Mrs. A. W. Garber. 


Colonel John B. Cary, Chairman. 
R. S. Bosher, J. Taylor Ellyson. 

Joseph Bryan. E. D. Hotchkiss. 

George L. Christian, E. C. Minor. 

W. E. Cutshaw, B B. Munford, 

J. B. Purcell. 

The Grand Commander of the United Confederate Veterans and 
Grand Commanders of the Confederate Camps in each State and Territoiy, 
are Honorary Members of this Board. 

Miss Isabel Maury, 

House Regent. 

[ 98 1